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A Manual of Heraldry 


A Popular Introduction to the Origin, Significance 
and Uses of Armorial Bearings ; a Guide to 
the forms and regulations of the Art-Science of 
Blazonry and a Prelude to the Influence of Heraldry 
upon Poetry, Art, Architecture and Literature. 


Gale Pedrick, f r. Hist. s. 

Author of " Monastic Seals of the xiiith Cent.," 

"Borough Seals of the Gothic Period," 


" The boast of Heraldry, the pomp of powtr, 

And all that beauty, ull that wealth e'er g»ue. 

Await aline the inevitable hour. 

The Piuh of Glory leads but to the gravt." 







B q^hi^^hh^^hibe: L Y 




That there is a growing interest in, and 
revived taste displayed towards the study of 
Heraldry cannot be gainsaid, nor can it be dis- 
puted that this renaissance of sensibility in regard 
to a noble and fascinating theme is not only a 
welcome and healthy sign, but also a moral and 
intellectual one, since the art-science ia question 
symbolises the most exalted ideals to which man 
can attain, and, moreover, puts forward countless 
brilliant instances as his exemplars. Further 
— and sufficient attention has never so far been 
paid to this fundamental points — it is absolutely 
impossible for anyone to understand and appre- 
ciate properly all the beauties of Poetry, Art, 
Architecture, or Literature, without some know- 
ledge of Heraldry 

To the furtherance of this reviving 
interest, perception and literary necessity there 
is, however, a serious obstacle, namely, the 
cost and rarity of books which deal with the sub- 
ject, and therefore I consider the issue of this 
little work fully justified. In brief, my aims 
V. - , ■ . . 



are, first, to tell the hurried but interested reader 
all that he really needs to know; second, to ex- 
plain for his guidance the rules which govern 
the art-science of Heraldry, so as to enable him 
not only to interpret and comprehend any 
example he may encounter, but also exercise it 
himself; third, to enable him to appreciate, as 
he never did before, the innermost beauties of 
Dante, Shakespeare, Scott, and others, and to 
open his ears to the silent song of countless 
works of art and architecture, in which are em- 
blematized deeds of chivalry, valour, and 
nobility; and, finally, if he desires, to lead him to 
a deeper study of one of the most fascinating 
themes imaginable. The curious and beau- 
tiful legends and anecdotes relating to chivalry 
and Heraldry will also, I hope, prove of interest, 
but I cannot vouch for their accuracy. 

I think it will interest my readers to know 
that the illustrations on the end papers are fac- 
similes of those contained in a " Pocket Herald " 
and " Gentleman's Companion," published on 
both sides of a small card for the wallet by 
Richard Barry, High Street, Bristol, " as the Act 
directs," on the ist day of August, 1810. 





What is Heraldry? ... ... ... 3 


The Classic, Ancient and Historical Pre- 
cursors OF Armorial Bearings. Emblems 
originating with the ancient Egyptians, 
Greeks and Romans. First notion of 
Heraldry ... ... ... ... 11 


Authorities of British Arms, Document- 
ary AND Material. Sepulchral Monu- 
ments. Medlcval Stained Glass, 
Sculpture and Paintings. The College 
OF Heraldry. Rolls of Arms. Origin 
OF Seals ... ... ... ... 25 


Armorial Instances of Classic, Ancient 
and Historical Devices ... ... 37 



Chap. page 

I. The Lion — The Bull — The Horse — 
The Sphinx — The Eye — The 
Sceptre — The Sword — The 
Serpent — The Ship ... ... 39 

II. The Owl — The Wolf — The Tor- 
toise — The Crescent — The 
Crocodile — The Bear ... ... 52 

III. The Bear (cont'd) — The Boar — The 

Thunderbolt ... ... ... 65 

IV. The Grasshopper — The Cornu- 

copia — Flowers — The Ostrich 

— The Shield — The Trident ... 78 

V. The Harp — The Apple — The Gar- 
land ... ... ... ... 90 

VI. The Club — The Lotus — ^The Keys ... 103 

VII. The Sword — The Saltire — The 

Escallop — The Chalice — The 
Knife ... ... ... 116 

VIII. The Knife (cont'd)— The Staff— 

The Lance ... ... ... 128 

IX. The Lance (cont'd) — The Axe — The 

Saw — The Winged Lion ... 141 

X. The Eagle ... ... ... 153 

XL Letters of the Alphabet — The 

Dragon — The Cross ... ... 167 

XII. The Cross (cont'd)— The Raven ... 181 



XIII. The Raven (cont'd) — The Stag — The 

Lily — Architectural Devices ... 196 

XIV. Architectural Devices (cont'd) — 

Maritime Devices ... ... 211 

XV. Agricultural and Astronomical 

Devices ... ... ... 224 

XVI. Signs of the Zodiac — Musical In- 

struments ... ... ... 236 


The Influence of Heraldry upon Art and 
Architecture, Archeology and Gene- 
alogy ... ... ... ... 251 


The Influence of Heraldry upon Poetry 
AND Literature — Scott ... ... 265 

How TO Reform Heraldry ... ... 287 



What is Heraldry? 

In consequence of the great and drastic changes 
which time has effected in human ideals and 
conditions, the honourable significance with 
which Armorial Bearings were invested in the 
Golden Age of Coat Armour, if not completely 
extinguished, has now indisputably become 
largely diminished. 

At first a simple means of identifying 
individuals on the field or at tne tourney, 
within a very short time of their invention they 
were endued with, and employed to express, 
great honour ani dignity. They proceeded 
from the Sovereign, the Fount of Honour, as 
estimable rewards for valour ; registered the 
performance of countless exploits, and proffered 
the external marks of the true chivalric spirit 
then abroad. Besides, they comprised practical 
emblems of personal and family distinction, andl-'^ 
became the exclusive possession of the nobler 
and gentle. In consequence they were held in 
the highest possible esteem and respect, and 
the system implied by their use, exercised an 



extraordinary ascendancy upon the manners and 
customs of the Middle Ages which they also 
served to colour. 

The desuetude into which Armorial Bearings 
have fallen in these times is, of course, obviously 
attributable to the circumstances that the age in 
which they were devised to meet a current need, 
has passed away. The conditions of modern 
life do not call for their active exercise, nor 
could they consistently symbolise the ideals 
which now prevail in similar forms. To the 
same causes, the loss of their original dignity 
and consequence may also to a considerable 
extent be fairly ascribed. 

But the greatest detriment which the ancient 
prestige of Armorial Bearings has sustained in 
modern times is due to the absence of all 
attempts to check and penalise the illegal assump- 
tion and use of arms, genuine or fictitious; 
the ease with which Armorial grants can 
be procured by individuals willing to disburse 
the necessary fees for the questionable conces- 
sion, and to the fancies, absurdities, and fictions 
which during the last four centuries have been 
permitted to grow up around and debase true 
Heraldry — circumstances which have not only 
tended in a great measure to deprive Armorial 
Bearings of their ancient and honourable signi- 
ficance, but have brought their present-day 
employment largely into ridicule and contempt. 

Armorial Bearings of antique origin, if they 


have lost their ancient uses, still retain inviolate 
all their honourable significance and preserve 
their antique sanctity. They may rightly be 
regarded by their possessors, where inherited by 
lawful succession and consequently held by 
proper title, with legitimate pride, and should 
continue to excite that respect in which they 
were originally held. But since Armorial 
Bearings have ceased to be either the recompense 
of personal valour or merit, or marks of personal 
distinction, or the exclusive attributes of the 
nobler and gentler spheres, and, moreover, have 
cast off all the restrictions which governed their 
granting and use in the past, achievements 
which cannot boast an historical and worthy 
genesis can lay claim to no dignity whatever, nor 
can arouse, save in the ignorant, any feeling but 
amusement and disdain. 

In view of the original purpose and character 
of Armorial Bearings, and of the growth of abuse 
which followed when they became obsolete, and 
also having regard to the fact that the regulations 
which formerly governed their bestowal and 
assumption have been dispensed with, it must 
be allowed that the intrinsic value of the arm.s 
of existing families can only be properly 
measured in these days by their antiquity, which 
in these circumstances, is likewise incontro- 
vertible proof of their authenticity. 

Between the ages of estimable Coat Armour 
and the present-day valueless Heraldry, it will 


be fair to draw the dividing line at the end of 
the seventeenth century. It is obvious and 
undebatable that a shield actually invented and 
borne during the age in which Coat Armour was 
the especial privilege, the exclusive possession, 
and the distinguishing mark of the nobility and 
gentry, a shield possessing internally indisputable 
evidence of its antiquity, and therefore of neces- 
sity its authenticity, is far more estimable than 
any modern device, even if supported by the 
authority of the Heralds' College — which, as a 
matter of fact, was not incorporated until the 
reign of Richard IIL 

Armorial Bearings, in brief, comprise a 
symbolical and pictorial method of expression, 
anciently devised in the spirit and for the 
purposes indicated. They possess a range of 
peculiar ornament, as well as a fixed" series of 
colours, and by a process of selection and com- 
bination of these, they indicate attributes of the 
persons, and often exhibit circumstances in 
relation to the houses employing them. 

In this country. Armorial Bearings were 
originally adopted during the second half of 
the twelfth century, and by the end of the same 
century became fairly extensive. So far, their 
forms and uses were practically elementary, but 
in the succeeding century the system which they 
represented was raised to a science of the first 
importance. Rulei were framed for their 
ordering, regulation and composition : various 


terms and formulas were selected, and a 
language was adopted for their use; a method 
was defined for their technical description, and 
laws were laid down for their assumption and 
display. And similarly, with real property, 
they became hereditary in accordance with 
precedence, and certain ordinances of inheritance. 


PART 11. 

The Classic, Ancient and Historical Precursors 
OF Armorial Bearings. Emblems originating 


Romans. First notion of Heraldry. 

From the remotest ages of antiquity men have 
made use of the representation of living 
creatures and symbolical signs to denote bravery 
and courage, and to distinguish themselves as 
names now do individuals. 

It was the custom of the ancient Egyptians* 
to decorate their temples and monuments with 
figures of various animals, parts of human 
bodies, and mechanical instruments, each sign 
having a particular signification known only to 
those who were initiated in the rites and 
mysteries of their religion. 

A lion was the symbol or hieroglyphic of 
strength and power; a bullock, of agriculture; 
a horse, of liberty; a sphinx, of subtlety. An 
eye, and a sceptre, represented a monarch ; a 
serpent in a circle, the universe; and a ship and 
pilot, the governor of the world. 

These magic signs, or hieroglyphics, were 
employed to record their laws and morals, and' 



to immortalise memorable actions. By this 
means, also, they transmitted to posterity the 
history of the world. 

Sir John Feme, an eminent authority on , 
Heraldry, is of opinion that the custom of 
bearing emblematical insignia was borrowed 
from these hieroglyphics; whilst Alexander 
Nisbet, another authority, asserts that they owe ■ 
their rise to the light of Nature, and were used 
in all ages and by all nations — no matter how 
simple or illiterate — to distinguish the noble 
from the ignoble. 

The Children of Israel, it is asserted, displayed' 
the ensigns of their fathers upon their tents; 
each family having a different device distinguish- 
ing it from others. This assertion is flilly borne 
out in the Book of Numbers (ch. ii., verse 2), 
where we read that " every man of the children 
of Israel shall pitch by his own standard with 
the ensign of their father's house." 

In all ages, cities and empires, as well as^ 
individuals, have been distinguished by certain ' 
badges; a pomegranate was the badge of Rhodes; 
an owl, of Athens; a bull's head, of Boetia; a 
pegasus, of Corinth; a minotaur's head, of Crete; 
a wolf's head, of Argos ; a horse's head, of 
Pharsalia; a tortoise, of Peloponnesus; a sphinx, 
of Scio; a horse, of Thessaly; and a crescent, 
of Byzantium. A siege of the latter, by Philip 
of Macedonia, is rendered famous by a circum- 
stance connected with it, which gave rise to the 


adoption of the crescent as the badge of 
Byzantium. Philip attempted to take this city 
by surprise. A dark night was selected for the 
purpose, when it was hoped the citizens would 
not be prepared to resist the attack. Philip's 
designs, however, were frustrated, as the moon 
suddenly emerged from the black sky with 
uncommon brilliancy, illuminating distinctly 
every object around the city. The assailants 
were thus unexpectedly exposed to view and 
discovered by the citizens, who, now upon their 
guard, easily repulsed them. The Byzantines, 
in gratitude for this seasonable and supposed 
miraculous interference of the moon, adopted 
the crescent as the badge of their city; and by 
this it is represented, on the coins of that period, 
with a legend intimating the crescent to be 
" the Saviour of Byzantium." This device has 
since been adopted as the national emblem of 

Egypt was represented by a crocodile, an 
animal almost peculiar to that country, and on a 
medal of Augusta and Agrippa the conquest of 
Egypt is expressed by the metaphor of a 
crocodile chained to a palm tree, the symbol of 

Among the ancients it was the custom to 
stamp on the obverse of their medals and coins 
the image and superscription of their rulers; and 
on the reverse, to place symbolical figures and 
devices emblematical of their virtues and great 


actions. These methods afford the most 
authentic documents of Roman history. By 
their aid man has been enabled to fix the 
chronology of the most important events in the 
world's history: and supposing all other records 
to have perished, we might still work out and 
reconstruct it. 

It is possible, with great certainty, to deter- 
mine the various ornaments and symbols used 
by different nations, as they supply us with the 
" pedigree of nations." The Goths were repre- 
sented by a bear, the Franks by a lion, the Saxons 
by a horse, the Phrygians by a sow, the Greeks 
by an owl, and the Flemings by a bull. A 
diadem — a ribbon tied round the head with a 
floating knot behind — adorns the images of 
all the Grecian princes, and was an infallible 
mark of sovereign power. The Romans, who 
had an aversion to kingly power, allowed their 
Emperors to assume a radiated crown, the 
symbol of divinity. The Senate permitted 
Julius Caesar to wear a laurel crown, the badge 
of conquest, and the Armenian Kings wore a 
tiara, which was esteemed the badge of imperial 
power in the East — Constantine is delineated 
on some medals wearing a triple crown upon his 
head for Europe, Asia, and Africa; on others, 
the princes are represented holding a thunder- 
bolt, to intimate that their power on earth was 
as great as that of Jupiter's in heaven. The 
bust of an Empress was frequently adorned with 


a crescent, to imply that she was the moon, as 
her husband was the sun, of the state. The 
figure of the crescent also adorned the sandals 
of the Roman nobles to distinguish them from 
the plebeian, and for the same reason the Greeks 
wore grasshoppers in their hair. 

Attributes, or symbols, have been employed in 
painting and sculpture in all nations where these 
arts were practised, and were added to figures to 
intimate their particular character. A cornu- 
copia is the attribute or symbol of Abundance; 
a flower-bud, of Hope; a palm, of Victory; a 
sceptre, of Authority; and an olive, of Peace. 
The Egyptians are said to have chosen the 
ostrich feather as the symbol of Truth and 
Justice, for the reason that when this feather is 
held upright, it is seen to be perfectly even and 
square on both sides, the stem dividing it exactly 
through the centre, which is the case with no 
other feather. 

The characters of ancient mythology and 
paganism had each their symbol by which they 
were distinguished. Minerva is represented by 
a shield, on which is displayed the head of 
Medusa ; Neptune by a trident ; Apollo by a 
harp; Juno by a peacock; Venus by an apple, 
the prize of beauty; Ceres by a garland of wheat; 
Hercules by a club; and Mercury by a caduce. 
Apis is represented by a bull, and sometimes by 
the lotus, the water lily of the Nile — the emblem 
of Creation. Isis was distinguished by certain 


flower-buds, considered by the ancient Egyptians 
to be emblematical of the perpetual bloom of 
the inhabitants of Heaven. 

From the earliest days of Christianity, signs 
and symbols have been substituted for figures 
of the Apostles in painting and sculpture — St. 
Peter is represented by the keys, St. Paul by a 

sword, St. Andrew by 
a cross, St. James by a 
pilgrim's staff, St. 
John by a chalice with 
a winged serpent issu- 
ing from it, St. Bartho- 
lomew by a knife, St. 
Philip by a staff with a 
cross at the top, St. 
Thomas by a lance, St. 
MAMTnnMn^V Matthew by a hatchet, 
F^y V St. Matthias by a bat- 

tle-axe, St. James-the- 
Less by a fuller's club, St. Simon by a saw, 
St. Jude by a club, and St. Mark by a winged 
lion. The arms of the City of London consist 
of a shield upon which is quartered a sword 
erect, the emblem of St. Paul, who is the special 
patron of the British metropolis. The ancient 
republic of Venice has for ages borne as its 
emblem the winged lion of St. Mark, holding 
between its paws the book of the laws of that 
evangelistic saint whose remains were brought 
to Venice from the Levant. 


The bucklers and standards of the ancients 
were commonly adorned with different figures, 
which circumstance undoubtedly gave us the 
first notion of Heraldry. The Persians carried 
in battle a golden eagle on a white flag; the 
Corinthians, a winged horse; the Messinians, 
the letter " M " ; the Lacedoemonians, the letter 
" L "—the initial letters of these states — and 
the Parthians and Scythians, a dragon. The 
standards carried by the Roman legions were 
various; a wolf, minotaur, horse, boar, have all 
been indifferently borne according to the 
humour of the commander. The eagle was not 
assumed until the second year of the consulate 
of Marius, when this emblem was taken from 
the Persians, who, up to that period, bore an 
eagle ; and this was the emblem of Imperial 
Rome up to the time of Constantine. When 
Rome became " queen of the earth," adding 
conquest after conquest to its bold ambition, the 
eagle was portrayed with two heads to express 
a rule that claimed to extend over the Eastern 
and Western empires, and also to intimate that, 
though the empire seemed divided, it was only 
one body. The German Kaisers and the 
Russian Tzars have adopted the two-headed 
eagle as the emblems of their respective nations, 
both of whom claim to be successors of the 
Roman Caesars. The eagles were not painted 
on flags, but fixed in relievo of gold and silver 
on the tops of standards' pikes, with the wings 


displayed, and frequently with a thunderbolt in 
the talons. 

Constantine the Great, when about to engage 
the enemy, in that awful moment which precedes 
the shock of battle, looked upwards to see if 
the sun god J polio looked favourably on his 
northern legions, and a new wonder in the sky 
met his gaze. It was a luminous cross sus- 
pended in the heavens, a halo surrounding it, 
and inscribed with the words, " In hoc signo 
vinces^^ — "by this thou shall conquer." He was 
astounded at the miracle, and bowed his head 
and worshipped the symbol he had before 
despised. Victory was promised to him, if he 
adopted the cross as his ensign, and he accepted 
it as the symbol of his new-born faith in the 

Constantine immediately displayed the cross 
on his standard, and by that he conquered. He 
marched into Rome, and that evening saw a new 
standard waving above the seven-hilled city, and 
from that time the cross, with a cipher expressing 
the name of Jesui, was the emblem of Imperial 

The Common Seal of Colchester, as well as 
the arms of the town, perpetuates a pious boast 
of the inhabitants which anciently they were 
sincere in making. The obverse presents a 
perpendicular fa9ade, of three divisions, with a 
pinnacled and crocketed pent-house on either 
side. It dates from the fifteenth century but 



finds its prototype in an earlier seal which dates 
from the thirteenth. In the central division, 
St. Helena, crowned and embracing a long cross, 
sits enthroned under an elaborate canopy. 
Above, in a small canopied niche, is the half- 
length figure of our Lord, and in the base 
between two ravens, a shield displaying the arms 
of the town, a cross raguly between three 
crowns, the one in base enfiling the cross. St. 
Helena, " whom the 
cross made famous," 
the patron saint of Col- 
chester, and her illus- 
trious son, Constantine 
the Great, are reputed 
to be " natives." She 
is considered to have 
been the daughter of a 
British Sovereign, by 
name, King C o e 1, 
famed in popular song 
as "Old King Cole" 
— from whom, if we accept 
Colchester derives its name, 
conquest by the Romans, 
Sovereigns are reputed to have exercised a 
measure of authority over their people, who 
regarded the city of Cymheline as the seat 
of their native monarch. The story of King 
Coel of Colchester, scouted by historians, is 
variously related in early MSS., and is to the 


Fig. 2. 

local tradition, 
In spite of the 
certain British 


effect that one Coel Godebog, otherwise Coel 
the Free-Liver^ or Coel Goodfellow^ having slain 
a King of Britain, was, in consideration of his 
submission to the Roman General Constantius — 
afterwards Emperor Constantius L — permitted 
to exercise the nominal sovereignty of Britain. 
Afterwards he is said to have rebuilt Colchester, 
where his daughter, a lady of unrivalled beauty, 
was born, and to have given her in marriage to 
Constantius, Constantine being born to them 
there in due time. But although it is certain 
St. Helena was a British princess, there is no 
evidence that Constantius was in Britain before 
Constantine was twenty-four years of age. The 
cross upon the seal embraced by St. Helena — 
as well as the cross raguly in the arms — alludes 
to her findina: of the True Cross. According 
to legend, having embraced Christianity late in 
life, and being seized by a desire to discover the 
cross upon which Christ had been crucified, she 
made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and after con- 
siderable search, found three crosses buried upon 
Calvary. In order to identify the True Cross, 
the three were successively applied to a woman 
stricken with a fatal disease, and when the third 
touched her the diseased woman arose perfectly 

But this is a diversion, although apropos of 
our theme, bearing in mind that Heraldry is a 
symbolical and legendary language. 

When the Danes invaded Britain during the 


reign of Alfred the Great, they brought with 
them a banner, upon which was embroidered 
the image of a raven, and was considered by 
them to carry great fatality with it. This 
banner was said to have been wrought by the 
sisters of Hinguar and Hubba expressly for 
this expedition, and it was asserted by the Danes 
that on the approach of success the raven would 
seem to rise, clap its wings, and make as if to 
fly, but on the approach ofdefeat the bird would 
seem to droop. So great was their faith in the 
power of this mystical standard, that when it 
was taken from them by Alfred's soldiery, the 
Danes were panic-struck, and, considering all 
hope lost, their army was easily routed. 

One of the Kings of France, in an early 
expedition against the Flemings, bore a flying 
hart as his device. Froissart, the old chronicler, 
mentions a curious dream of this King which 
gave rise to this symbol. He dreamt he was 
in the city of Arras attended by all the flower 
of chivalry, when a knight came to him and 
placed a beautiful falcon on his wrist. The King 
was much pleased with the gift, and, attended 
by the Constable of France, took the bird into 
the fields. Finding plenty of herons, they let 
go the falcon, and it immediately flew so far 
away in the direction of Flanders that they 
could scarcely see it. The King, fearing he 
should lose his bird, rode on as fast as possible 
until he came to a dense wood, where, as it was 


impossible to pass through on horseback, he had 
to dismount. The falcon drove the herons so 
far before it, that at last it was entirely out of 
sight, and the King, seeing the impossibility 
of following, was much vexed. Whilst in this 
anxiety a beautiful hart with two wings appeared 
to issue out of the wood, and lay down before 
him. The King mounted to go in search of 
his falcon, and like one tutored to obey its 
rider's pleasure, the hart carried him over the 
tops of the high trees, where he saw his falcon 
striking down a number of birds. He called to 
it, and almost instantly it came and perched on 
his wrist. The hart carried the King back to the 
spot where he had left the Constable; the King 
dismounted, and the hart returned to the woods 
and was seen no more. When the King awoke 
he was astonished at the vision, and the figure 
of a hart was so agreeable to him that he adopted 
it as his badge. 

The lily, or fleur-de-lis, the ancient emblem 
of France, is said to have been brought from 
Heaven by an angel to Clovis, who had made 
a vow to build a church if he proved victorious 
in a pending battle. / This is the traditional 
account of the fleur-de-Usy but most probably 
it took its origin from the iron point of the 
javelin, which was similar in shape, used by the 
ancient French. It was the emblem of France for 
a long period up to the formation of the Repub- 
lic, when the tricolour was substituted for it. 

PART Jll. 


Authorities of British Arms, Documentary and 
Material. Sepulchral Monuments. Medieval 
Stained Glass, Sculpture and Paintings. The 
College of Heraldry. Rolls of Arms. Origin 
OF Seals. 

Notwithstanding the honourable significance 
and high importance of Armorial Bearings, and 
the extensive uses of their assumption in 
mediaeval times, no system existed for the 
complete registration of those granted and 
borne, and no official record was kept with the 
least fulness. Consequently, there are no his- 
torical documents, nor signs of documents, pro- 
viding anything approaching a complete record of 
early arms to which we can refer, nor by recourse 
to which the antiquity and authenticity of every 
existing achievement can be tested. Evidence 
of genuine arms, in a widely scattered form, 
we do possess in abundance, but although this 
serves as a reliable criterion of antiquity and 
authenticity in the cases involved, when 
reviewed collectively, it renders at best but a 
very incomplete chronicle of mcdiacvil 



The evidence of Bearings actually granted 
and borne during the Armorial epoch remaining, 
is divisible into two classes, i.e.^ material and 

The former class of testimony is composed 
of, to some extent, and largely contributed to 
by, the sepulchral monuments which, elaborated 
with Armorial achievements, abound in our 
cathedral, abbey, and parish churches; by Early 
English stained glass sustaining heraldic 
devices, discoverable in many church windows, 
as well as numerous castles and old manor 
houses; by sculpture of the same period and 
character, which is to be found in considerable 
quantities within ecclesiastical and domestic 
buildings; by paintings on panels of the same 
description with less frequently, on some 
shields and banners actually used on the field 
or at the tourney, which have also survived the 
centuries, and in certain illuminated manuscripts 
which repose in public and private collections. 
Individually and collectively, these Armorials 
chronicle a number of antique coats-of-arms, 
concerning the antiquity and authenticity of 
which there can be no possible doubt. 

The second body of proof of authenticity and 
antiquity of Armorial Bearings in certain 
instances is contributed by, and in some measure 
provided by, various official documents in the 
custody of the Heralds' College; by numerous 
heraJdic MSS. in the national and other public, 


as well as private, libraries, and by documents 
cited in certain County Histories, and other 
works of a kindred character. All these contain 
numerous, albeit fugitive, records of the grant 
and assumption of legitimate arms, and may 
be safely adduced as evidence both of their 
antiquity and authenticity. 

Chief, however, both in age and importance, 
amongst extant proofs of authentic mediaeval 
achievements are what are known as Rolls of 
Arms. These comprise a number of long, 
narrow parchment strips, consisting of, or rather 
containing, the appellations and dignities of 
certain contemporary personages, and complete 
delineations of their Armorial insignia. Gener- 
ally speaking, it is doubtful under what con- 
ditions these Rolls were compiled, but numerous 
examples have descended to us. In point of 
date, they recede as far back as the reign of 
Henry III., and almost completely embrace the 
period in which Heraldry was in spirit, form, 
and essence, pure and undefiled. The earliest, 
so far discoverable, is dated a.d. 1245, and the 
latest, A.D. 1 5 12. The most curious of all is 
the well-known Caerlaverock Roll, a.d. 1300, 
which, recounting in metrical form and in 
Norman French, various incidents connected 
with the famous siege and capture of the fortress 
indicated — by Edward I. — incidentally describes 
with particular fulness the Armorial Bearings 
displayed and borne by all the princes, nobles, 


and knights who bore a part in the same. This 
singular Roll has been published with useful 
observations, but the chief, and indeed all the 
others, can only be referred to in the original 

With the exception of one particular volume 
of proof only, these Rolls constitute collectively 
by far the most valuable evidence of the proof 
of the antiquity and authenticity of such 
mediaeval Armorials as are in use to-day. 
Important as they are, however, in so far as they 
proceed, they are very far from complete; as 
already implied, there is no single Roll, or series 
of Rolls, which provides a full record of all the 
Bearings borne during the actual Armorial 

The excepted body of testimony regarding 
the antiquity and authenticity of Bearings con- 
sists of Armorial Seals, which not only provide 
the most extensive, the most important, and the 
most weighty volume of evidence, but con- 
stitute as well the chief authorities of English 

Not long after the Norman Conquest, the 
practice of sealing was established as a legal 
necessity in this country. As a natural con- 
sequence, seals were regarded as objects of prime 
significance, and to the circumstances of their 
legal importance and their widespread use are 
due the creation and preservation of a great 
and infinitely varied number, far in excess of 


all other kindred illustrations put together. 

To be of value, it was essential that each seal 
should be distinguished by a device peculiar to 
its possessor ; to meet this requirement, the 
Bearings displayed upon the knightly shield 
were represented upon the seal, and thus seals 
obtained their Armorial character. 

They comprise original works and supply 
indisputable contemporary authority for the 
arms they bear. Each was produced with par- 
ticular care. Their devices were approved and 
sanctioned by their owners, and their original 
authenticity was ratified by their continued use 
during successive generations. They not only 
provide the genesis of the bearings of armigerous 
families, and find esteem as such, but are 
the chief sources of all Armorial insignia. 
Consequently, the Armorial evidence of seals is 
of the highest order. The accuracy of those 
achievements enumerated on the Rolls is tested 
and proved by comparison with them, and these 
Rolls are greatly amplified by such Armorial 
Seals as cover the same period. 

Whilst the contents of the Rolls referred to, 
as well as particulars afforded by all other 
material and documentary forms of evidence, are 
well known and fairly easy of access, the exact 
contrary is the case with Armorial Seal remains 
corresponding in date. The value of a family 
genealogy is dependable, if not altogether, to 
a very great extent, upon the point to which it 


can be traced in the first instance, and the dis- 
tance to which the gentility of its house can be 
established in the second. As their subsequent 
employment continued to indicate and bear 
witness to the social standing of its members 
and descendants, the assumption of Armorial 
Bearings marked the original exaltation of a 
race to armigerous rank, and consequently, 
since they are of a remote period, and sustain 
the exclusive attributes of the nobility and 
gentry, the seals to which we have referred are 
not only indisputable proof of the age, but of 
the antique gentility of the families concerned. 
Indeed, the real genealogical value of a house 
is marked and confirmed by them. Whilst a 
coat-of-arms, unrecorded upon an Armorial Seal 
contemporary with the real age of Heraldry — 
in which the use of coat-armour was the privi- 
lege and exclusive mark of nobility and gentry — 
cannot be defined as necessarily fictitious, or the 
fact accepted as negative evidence against the 
claim of a family to antiquity or antique gen- 
tility, it is obvious that an early Armorial Seal 
is proof of both concerning the race to which 
it appertains. 

The apparatus represented by Armorial 
Bearings, as already mentioned, was elevated to 
a mediaeval science of the first consequence in 
the thirteenth century. Their principal forms 
and constituents were then determined ; their 
decorative elements were chosen, and their 


colours fixed. Descriptive terms and formulas 
were devised, and their language assigned them; 
a practice was instituted for their composition 
and laws framed for their assumption and use. 
Notwithstanding their supreme importance, no 
complete history of the original adoption, use, 
and development of Armorial Bearings has so 
far been compiled, whilst in regard to their real 
character, principles, and regulation, early 
Heraldic literature can hardly be regarded as 
particularly informative. 

The most valuable material for constructing 
the History of Armorial Bearings, and the most 
comprehensive data for the elucidation of their 
forms and principles available, is now proffered 
by Armorial Seals. Upon them, in fact, these 
annals are graven with such incontestable fidelity, 
such wealth of illustration, and such extra- 
ordinary fulness as to be almost entirely 
adequate. Moreover, in addition to exhibiting 
combinations of composition in endless variety, 
and in illustrating all their forms and elements, 
from them may be completely deduced all the 
characteristics, objects, and formulas, as well as 
an entire idea of their usages. Furthermore, 
they convey contemporary delineations, all 
embodying the proper heraldic aspect of the 
achievements they illustrate and chronicle, and 
compose a collection of antique and authentic 
Bearings, the Armorial life and spirit of which 
no other similar accumulation can effectively 


emulate, either in intensity, numbers, or truth. 
As previously implied, seals were introduced 
into England about two centuries before the 
system of Armorial Bearings was exalted to the 
dignity of a science. 

The use of seals as marks of authenticity to 
letters and instruments is of great antiquity. 
In the Book of Jeremiah there is an interesting 
instance of the custom of sealing and other 
formalities attending a Jewish purchase. This 
custom of sealing arose from the illiteracy of 
the times, some authentic mark to a document 
being absolutely necessary. The ancients had 
their seals engraved on precious stones, and in 
the art of seal engraving they excelled, there 
being many specimens extant that surpass any- 
thing of the kind produced in modern times. 
Among the Greeks, Pyrogotelles was a master 
of the art, as was Dioscorides amongst the 
Romans. Augustus's head engraved by the 
latter was deemed so beautiful that several of 
the succeeding Emperors employed it as their 
seal. It was at first forbidden to have images 
of the gods upon seals, but in process of time 
this was little regarded, and it became common 
enough to have the figures of deities, as well 
as heroes, monsters, brutes, and even friends 
engraved on seals, Ccesar had an image of 
Venus; Pollis of Alexander, a sphinx; Pompey, 
a frog; and Ccntius, his grandfather. In 609, 
when Mahomet began to think of propagating 


his religion beyond the bounds of Arabia, he 
sent letters to the neighbouring princes inviting 
them to embrace Mahometanism, but before 
sending these letters he caused a silver seal to 
be made, upon which he had engraved in three 
lines the following words: — "Mahomet, the 
apostle of God." The custom of the Saxons 
was for such as could not write to affix the sign 
of the cross to their documents, and this practice. 
is still maintained in our own times by unedu- 
cated persons, who make a cross for their mark. 
The Normans, a brave but illiterate race, first 
introduced the practice of scaling into England, 
and even when learning had made its way 
amongst them, they continued the custom, which 
in our day is still practised, but now a seal must 
be accompanied by the signature. The impres- 
sions on these seals were knights on horseback, 
or devices according to fancy; heraldic devices 
were not introduced upon seals until the reign 
of Richard I., upon the establishment of a 
Heraldry proper, when it became customary to 
have the same device engraved on the seal as 
was borne on the shield. The devices depicted 
on the seals of some old Boroughs are of a 
very interesting character, that of Lyme Regis, 
in Dorset, contains a whole geographical and 
historical description of that town. On this 
seal a ship is represented on the sea carrying 
at the masthead a three-tailed pennon charged 
with the cross of St. George. At the sides of 


the mast are placed banners, displaying on one 
the lion of England, on the other the arms 
of Leon and Castile. At the prow is fixed a 
group representing the Crucifixion, with the 
Blessed Virgin and St. John; at the stern is 
St. Michael, the archangel trampling upon a 
dragon, holding a crosier in his right hand, and 
in his left a shield charged with the cross of 
St. George. On the border of the seal are the 
sun, moon, and stars. This is not the arms of 
Lyme Regis — it is far too elaborate a device 
for a coat, especially of its period. The arms 
consist of two blue wavy bars, on a golden field 
surmounted by a lion. The curious device on 
the seal is thus interpreted: — The English lion 
plainly tells that Lyme Regis is a royal borough ; 
the wavy azure shows that it is a maritime, and 
not an inland town, and the ship corroborates 
this. The ship itself (it is a round ship, and 
not a war-galley) and the waves, sun, moon, and 
stars speak of commerce and distant voyages. 
The pennon at the masthead, with the cross of 
St. George and its three tails, is emblematic of 
England with the Holy Trinity. The banners 
displayed on either side of the mast, which form 
part of the central group of the seal, point to 
the fact that the revenues of Lyme Regis were 
among those settled to secure the Queen's dower. 
The forward group (the Crucifixion^ tells of the 
previous connection of the town with the Abbey 
of Holy Mary of Glastonbury, whose interest 


here Edward I. had acquired, whilst the group 
after shows that the town, represented in the 
likeness of the ship, was regarded as being under 
the protection and pilotage of St. Michael, the 
patron of the church and borough. This is but 
a single instance of what interesting facts and 
information can be gleaned from an old borough 
seal, and there are many such still in use. 

Some distinguishing mark was demanded by 
each seal, and it is frequently discoverable that 
the device of a seal designed prior to the 
Armorial epoch suggested and supplied the 
genesis of the hereditary achievements of the 
same family, and so found a place in the realm 
of Armorial illustration. In proof, two examples 
may be cited. The arms of the house of InneSy 
which comprised (a.d 143 i) three mullets, azure, 
on a field argent, are to be traced to the single 
mullet which constituted the pre-heraldic device 
of the seal of William Innes, or De Ynays, 
attached to his deed of homage to Edward I., 
dated a.d. 1295, whilst, similarly, the arms borne 
by the Montgomeries, Earls of Eglintoun, 
which comprised (a.d. 143 i) three mullets, azure, 
find their origin in the seal of their ancestor, 
John Mundegumri, a.d. i 175, which displays an 
isolated fleur-de-lis upon the field, and not upon 
a shield. Such seal instances, in addition to 
supplying the fount of the Bearings of those 
families to which they relate, enable us to 
institute comparisons between truly Armorial 


devices with the designs which preceded them, 
and are estimable on both grounds. Mediaeval 
seals therefore present, in the second place, not 
only the most authoritative material and the 
most comprehensive history of Armorial Bear- 
ings obtainable, but a history that is almost 
entirely sujfficient. In addition, they afford 
the most valuable exposition of the science, the 
most reliable exemplifications of its principles, 
and the most complete exhibition of its practice 
and illustration. 


Armorial Instances of Classic, Ancient 
AND Historical Devices. 


The Lion — The Bull — The Horse — The Sphinx — 
The Eye — The Sceptre — The Sword — The Ser- 
pent — The Ship. 

In a previous chapter we indicated the assump- 
tion of devices in classic, ancient, and historic 
times, and, if only for the purpose of compari- 
son, it may be interesting to see how, in later 
centuries, some of the most famous have passed 
into the realm of Armorial illustration. 

We will take the lion, first used by the 
ancient Eg-yptians as a symbol of strength and 
power — the king of beasts still maintains his 
natural metaphorical value. This beast is 
perhaps the most frequent of all Bearings. In 
early Heraldry, it is generally represented 
rampant, while leopards are represented passant 
guardant, and hence the arms of England are 
more correctly blazoned leopards. Probably, 
however, the same animal was intended, but 
different names given according to the position; 
in later times the name lion was given to both. 
The chief evidence is that the first entry in one 
of our earliest rolls of arms runs thus : " Le 
Roy d^Angleterre porte gules, trots leopards 

P 39 


d^or (Roll, temp Henry IIL), and in the early 
roll of Edward IL the royal arms are blazoned 
guleSy the leopards passant or, and such they 
still remain. The lion is drawn conventionally, 
as is right and proper, and the design is suited 
to the material or character of the work into 
which it is introduced. The position of rampant 

is the one most com- 
mon, as it was thought 
to be the most natural 
for the lion. It signi- 
fies rearing, but with 
the sinister hinder leg 
and the sinister fore 
leg lower than the two 
<*» _ _ dexter legs respectivc- 

iTY^TrRTONJ ^^' ^^^ ^^°" ^^ rarely 
JLAxtjli. J vJlN represented r e a r i ng 

with both its hind legs 

touching the ground 

and its fore legs even. In the time of 

Henry III., the Earl of Arundel bore a gold 

lion on a red field; contemporaneously, so did 

the Count de Lisle, with this difference — that 

his lion was blue on a gold field. Here we get 

an example of the countless combinations, in 

form, colour, and position,which makes Heraldry 

unique in its diversity. In the time of 

Edward II., Sir Roger Felbrigge bore on a field 

gules, a lion saliant — that is to say, rearing with 

both its hind legs touching the ground and its 

Fig. 3. 


fore legs even. A further instance of this 
posture is evidenced by the arms of Robert 
Snowden, Bishop of Carlisle (161 6 — 21), who 
bore azure, a lion saliant^ or; the families of 
Light on, Sollance, and Jermyn also display the 
lion in the posture indicated. The head of the 
lion, however, may be turned to face you, when 
it is said to be rampant guardant, or it may be 
turned completely round, when it is said to be 
rampant reguardant — and an ugly-looking beast 
it is! Two lions facing each other — just con- 
templating the fray — are combatant. Examples 
of the first are furnished by the families of 
Fitzhammon, Catesby, Holland, Earl of Kent, 
Jenkins, Morgan, Bishop of Bangor (1666 — 73), 
Vivian, Agmar, and Lucas. The lion as 
passant is frequently represented guardant. 
As already said, the leopard was the ancient term 
used, and this in some cases evidently implied 
a. lion passant guardant. Of course, if the 
animal is spotted, a leopard itself is meant. The 
arms of Palgrave bear a lion passant, and so do 
those of Lyland, and others. To William I., 
William II., and Henry I., two yions passant 
guardant in pale were ascribed, but on no con- 
temporary authority. Sir Robert de la Marc 
(temp. Edward II.) bore two leopards passant, 
and his contemporary. Sir John, three lions 
passant in pale. The Company of the Staple 
Merchants — incorporated by Edward III. — 
displays, inter alia, a lion passant guardant, 


Lions may also be blazoned as couchant; they 
should then be represented with their heads erect. 
The term statant is also found occasionally 
applied to the lion that is standing with both 
the fore legs touching the ground. It may also 
be sejant, A lion couchant is part of the achieve- 
ments of Tynte and Erleworth; a lion statant^ of 
Segre and Neale; and a lion sejant^ Huggison. 
Lions are frequently crowned ; they arc also 
subject to various treatments, sometimes being 
charged with some device on the shoulder and 
sometimes collared. A lion may also be repre- 
sented supporting some other charge. Lions 
may also be of any tincture, even parti-coloured. 
In the days of Edward II., Sir John de Scgravc 
bore a lion rampant crowned, and his colleague, 
Sir John de Beauchamp as well, with the differ- 
ence that the lion of the first was blazoned 
argent^ and the other sable. The arms of 
Alexander are five barrulets, over all a lion 
rampant^ crowned and sustaining a battle-axe; 
but the positions, and colours, and situations 
on the shield in which the lion figures arc too 
numerous to mention. But this is a curious one; 
Hoptony which coat exhibits a lion hopping on 
a tun, an example of punning Heraldry some 
mediseval heralds, with doubtful taste, used to 
indulge in. A lion may be armed, or armed 
and langued, of a different tincture {i <?., with 
its tongue, claws, or teeth^ etc., of such tincture)^ 


or disarmed — that is, deprived of claws and 
teeth; also enraged^ or incensed — that is, with 
fire issuing f; om the mouth and ears. Here are 
a few varied cases : A lion rampant crowned and 
langued, Pickering; a lion rampant^ crowned, 
armed, and langued, Turhervtlle, Bishop of 
Exeter, 1555-9; a lion ramp^wf, enraged, Ettrick; 
and a lion rampant incensed, Morgan ap Mere- 
dith, Lord of Tredegar, co. Monmouth. 

Beyond these, Heraldry frequently describes 
the lion's tail in the blazon ; for instance, the 
animal may be represented as coward — that is, 
with its tail hanging down between the hind 
legs (whence the English word); it may also be 
represented with the tail erect, but this is rare, 
the ordinary position of the tail being as if 
crossed over the back; it is very often forked — 
that is, a double tail, and this is sometimes repre- 
sented knotted. 

An illustration of the forked tail is discovered 
on the brass of Symon Malory, who died in 
A.D. 1580, in Woodford Church, Northants. 
Simon de Montfort, the great Earl of Leicester 
(temp. King John), bore a lion with its 
tail knotted, and so did Sir Adam de Welles in 
the time of Edward II., and so did many of his 
contemporaries, as evidenced by a Roll of Arms 
of that epoch. Lions may also be represented 
coupedy when they are called demi-lions, and 
there are, besides this, some singular combina- 
tions of two or several lions' bodies, but with 


only one head, as witness the shield of John 
Northampton, Lord Mayor of London, 138 1- 
1382, which discloses a bi-corporate lion 
rampant coward ducally crowned. Lions' heads 
sometimes occur in blazon, but more frequently 
leopards' heads. A Roll of Edward IIL exem- 
plifies this in the blazon of William de Rednesse, 
which comprises three leopards' heads on % 
chevron. The same charge also figures in the 
arms of Mitchell, Barnes, De la Pole, Earl of 
Suffolk, Gibbons, Faringdon, Morland, and 
many others. Finally, there are lionccls. 
When two or more lions occur in the same 
coat not separated by an ordinary they are 
more properly blazoned as lioncels, except on 
a royal coat, or in the case of two lions 
combatant or addorsed, the dignity of a 
lion being supposed not to allow a competitor 
in the same field. Practically, however, in 
modern blazon the term iioncel is only used 
when there are five or six. The arms of the 
famous William Longspee, Earl of Salisbury 
(natural son of Henry II.), and of Humphry de 
Bohun, Earl of Hereford, are found very fre- 
quently on old glass and the like. The seal 
attached to the will of the latter is an excellent 
bit of mediaeval heraldic art. The arms of 
Longspee — six lioncels three two and one — are 
varied from those of Anjou, the ancient inherit- 
ance of his father's family, which were eight 
lioncels, or perhaps originally more. 



Now we come to the second classic figure on 
our list, namely, a bullock, the hieroglyphic or 
symbol of agriculture. He is rarely seen in 
ancient Rolls of Arms, but in later times is toler- 
ably frequent; and we find also the ox, the cow, 
and the calf all duly blazoned The latter is 
distinguished in heraldry by the absence of the 
horns. The term buffalo is rarely used in 
English heraldry. The charge is often used 
associated with the name, as in the case of Ox- 
ford, Oxendon, &c. A bull may be horned, 
hoofed, unguled, and armed of a different tinc- 
ture, and it may be collared and even belled. The 
arms of Oxford City is 
a punning device, an ox 
passing over a ford of 
water. Besides this 
Oxendon, Oxley and 
Veal furnish examples 
of the ox and the calf; 
Cowell, of the cow, 
and Cavell and Calver- 
ley, further examples 
of the calf. Bull's 
heads are perhaps more 
commonly found than 
the animal itself, generally erased, some- 
times couped, often caboshed. Generally the 
horns are blazoned of a different tincture. The 
families of Bullock and Turnbull each bear bulls' 
heads. The winged bull is also one of the Evan- 


Fig. 4. 


gelistic symbols (St. Luke). The four symbols, 
which have their origin in the mystical interpre- 
tation of the first chapter of Ezekiel (verse lo), 
compared with the fourth chapter of Revelations 
(verses 6 — 9), occur together at least in one case, 
namely, that of Reynolds, Bishop of Worcester, 
afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, 13 14- 
1327. The house of Luke displays that of the 
evangelist implied alone. Now we come to the 
horse, the sign of Liberty. In Greek mytho- 
logy Pegasus was a winged horse, which sprang 
from Medusa's blood, and typifies the " flight 
of fancy." It does not occur in ancient rolls 
of arms, and less often than would be expected 
in modern coats. It is represented as standing, 
as trotting, as courant, or in full career, and as 
saliant or rearing : it may be, saddled and 
bridled. In English arms the horse is some- 
times represented as spancelled^ a term used 
when its fore and hind legs are fettered together. 
Very frequently horses' heads only are given. 
A horse is borne as the insignia of the House 
of Hanover — ancient Saxony — and is found 
blazoned as The White Horse of Hanover. 
It is also borne by Bromfaling, Cavell, Restlings, 
Trotter, Coulthard, and others. Horsley, 
Bishop of St. David's, a.d. 1778, and afterwards 
of Rochester and of St. Asaph, bore three 
horses' heads couped and bridled. Jones, who 
preceded him in the same See, a.d. 1692, dis- 
played three nags' heads erased. The horse- 


shoe is found as a charge amongst the earliest 
arms we have. There are usually six or eight 
nail holes. Three or six horse-shoes are said 
to have formed the early coat of the Ferrers^ 
Earls of Derby, who afterwards bore the horse- 
shoes as a border to their arms. Robert Ferrar, 
Bishop of St. David's, 1 548-1 564, bore three 
horse-shoes on a bend; the Farriers' Company, 
which was incorporated a.d. 1670, appropriately 
bears three horse-shoes pierced. 

The Sphinx, emblem of subtlety and silence, 
is a monstrosity of Egyptian origin, composed 
of the head and breast of a woman, the body of 
a lion, and the wings of an eagle. It is sup- 
posed to have infested Thebes and devoured 
its inhabitants till CEdipus solved its riddle, 
when it perished. It was also used by the 
Greeks, who probably derived it from Egypt. 
It is more often used as a crest than a coat of 
arms. It was borne in the arms of Sir John 
Moore, the hero of Corunna. It also figured 
in the shield of Cameron (co. Argyll), and of 
Berry of Norfolk, now an extinct baronetcy. 
The harpy was a similar monstrosity, represented 
as a vulture, with the head and breast of a 
woman, and was considered to be the offspring 
of Neptune and Jena. A harpy is mentioned 
as the insignia of Nuremberg, and figures in 
the arms of Moorby and Mesville. Allied to 
the harpy is a badge which is found some- 
times carved on stonework of the reign of 


Richard IIL, and is usually attributed to this 
King. It is supposed, however, to represent a 
falcon, not a vulture, with the head of a woman. 
The Chimera is said to have the face of a maiden, 
the mane and legs of a lion, the body of a goat, 
and the tail of a dragon, but it is only used as 
a crest. 

In classic times an eye and a sceptre stood for 
the monarch and monarchy. In armorial times 
we find the two symbols divorced. The human 
eye, with no particular significance, is sometimes 
represented in arms; the eyes of animals are 
rarely referred to. Eyes occur in the shield of 
Delahay — blood-red ones, too! — Dodge, of 
Suffolk, bears, inter alia, a silver eye weeping 
and dropping. fFatt and Leigier also bear 
human eyes. 

In the case of the sceptre, it is still the ensign 
of royal authority, but is seldom borne singly. 
It is occasionally found in connection with % 
sword, the two placed saltire-wise, or held in the 
hand of some king or saint; but a sceptre in bend 
between two crowns is evidenced in one achieve- 
ment; a sceptre crossed by another in that of 
Percy; azure, three sceptres in bend or, Portrea; 
a sceptre also figures in the matriculation of 
Montgomery, Earl of Mount Alexander. 

Anciently the serpent in a circle stood for the 
Universe. It is now more regarded as a symbol 
of cunning and treachery. The serpent or 
snake, for in heraldry they arc synonymous, is 


found in the ancient rolls under the name of bis» 
The word survives in the Italian, biscia, or cobra 
of Milan. The reptile occurs infrequently 
in coats of arms, and its position should be de- 
scribed. In the arms of Cat us it is represented 
erect. It may also be drawn gliding or fess- 
ways, or may be encircled. It so occurs in the 
arms of Whitby Abbey. The device was prob- 
ably suggested by the fossil ammonites found 
in the lias clay there, which were at first sup- 
posed to be petrified snakes. In the time of 
Henry III. Count de Trevsteyn bore a red snake 
— if this was not a serious work, we should be 
disposed to suggest he might have seen one, and 
had adopted it as a reminder for the rest of his 
life that he had better keep off strong wine! 
Cotter, Longshare, Ducat, and ether families are 
amongst those in which the serpent figures. 
The snake is also represented twisted in a knot — 
or nowed. It is thus represented in the crest of 
Cavendish. They are sometimes blazoned with 
tails in their mouths; at others round a pillar or 
round the necks of children. The adder is 
another variety of this genus. 

A ship and pilot, which anciently emblema- 
tized " The Governor of the World," arc no 
longer seen together, although the human figure 
is very prominent in many shapes and forms. 
We cannot, however, associate an armorial man 
with pilotage, although there are several watch- 
men. A pilot does figure in the device in which 


originated the arms of the city of Bristol, but he 
\vas a very atrocious person — nothing less than 
a wrecker, whose duty it was lo entice ships in 
peril into the " Secret Quay " and then rob 

The ship, somewhat in the sense in which it 
was anciently employed, since the supremacy of 
the sea implies the governing of the world, is 
much in evidence in armorial illustration in 
various antique forms. It is found especially in 
the insignia of seaport towns and of merchants' 
companies. The form varies greatly in different 
examples, being for the most part copied from 
the existing fashion. Ships and castles are so 
greatly varied in form that they present greater 
difficulties than almost any other bearings. They 
consist of lymphads, or galleys, mediaeval boats 
with stern and forecastles rigged and sometimes 
manned. In most cases they were derived from 
the ancient seals of the various seaports which 
respectively employ them. Meares was assigned 
a three-masted galley; Crawford, amongst other 
detail, a ship of three masts; Poole, a ship in full 
sail proper; but there are many examples. The 
hull, or hulk, is sometimes figured separately, 
and in a few cases — the insignia of the Cinque 
Ports being the most characteristic example — a 
portion only of the hull is shown. Often, too, 
the hulk is conjoined to some other charge. 

The ancient badge of Rhodes y a pomegranate, 
has its heraldic imitation in " the apple of 


Grenada." Tree, branch, and fruiT are all found 
borne in arms. The badge of Catharine of 
Arragon consisted of a pomegranate. 

A tree is blazoned on the arms of Wilkes; it 
also figures in the arms of the College of Physi- 
cians, which was incorporated 1523. Doctor 
Lopus, Queen Elizabeth's physician, also dis- 
played a pomegranate. Bishop Breson, of Win- 
chester, 1 597-1 6 1 6, employed the fruit in an 
armorial sense, and it can be seen in the arms of 
Gardiner, Guildford, Barr, Ford, Grange, and 

There is no connection, of course, between 
Rhodes and our pomegranate, but it serves to 
give a peg whereon to hang a few heraldic illus- 


Fig. 5. 

The Owl — Thk Wolf — The Tortoise — The Cres- 
cent — The Crocodile — The Bear. 

The emblem of Athens was an owl, which 
seems fitting in the case of this ancient seat of 
wisdom and culture. This bird occurs often in 
English heraldry. The owl was also a symbol of 
death. The device of Orsini, Duke of Paliano, 
was an owl, with the motto in Latin, "Despise 
not the lot of fate." The Ethiopians, when 
they wished to pronounce sentence of death upon 
t person, carried to him a table, upon which an 
owl was painted. When the guilty man saw 
the device he was expected to destroy him- 
self with his own hand. Not much of a choice ! 
Shakespeare always gives the owl as portending 
death : 
" Out on ye owls! nothing but songs of death !" 

Richard 11.^ Part iv.^ Sc. i. 
Macbeth says : 
" It was the owl that shriek'd, that fatal bellman 

"Which giv'st the stern'st good night !" 

'Act /., Sc. 2. 



Henry VI. also gives us : 
" And boding scritch owls make the concert 

Part «., Jet 5, Sc. 2. 

Pliny says : 

" The scritch owle betokeneth alwaies some 
heavie r.ewes, and is most deevable and accursed 
and mainly in the presages of public affairs. He 
keepeth ever in the desert; and loveth not onely 
such unpeopled places but also that are horrible 
hard of access. In summer he is the very 
monster of the night, neither crying nor singing 
out cleare, but uttering a certain heavy groan of 
doleful moning. And, therefore, if he be seen 
either within cities or otherwise in any place 
abroad, it is not for good, but prognosticatith 
some fearful misfortune." 

Why the poor wise bird has deserved to be 
saddled with such an evil reputation is beyond 
us; but the subject is getting gruesome, and we 
will leave it. The owl is always depicted full- 
face in heraldry. It is found in an old Roll of 
Arms, under the name of huit. In one coat the 
horned owl is named. An owlet is only borne in 
French arms; the French also have the screech- 
owl. In England, 3 owls are borne by Prescott; 
the same number by Brigge, by Oulny^ also three 
by Beringham. Bishop Oldham^ of Sodor and 
Man, 1481-1486, bore amongst other things 
three owls in silver. Owls are also exhibited by 
a large number of other families, so its ill-repute 


is at a discount in spite of Macbeth and Pliny 
A bull's head was the emblem of Boetia, in 
ancient geography, a district of Greece; the 
inhabitants are now reputed to be rustic and 
dull, but perhaps they are not unhappy for 
the same two reasons. We have already 
heraldically treated the bull and his head. But 
the device involves a warning. Prospero 
Colonna (ob. 1523), Lord of Paliano, was one 
of the most renowned captains of Italy. His 
hereditary hatred of the Orsini induced him 
to join the French party, because Virginio 
Orsini had attached himself to the Aragonese. 
By his help Charles II. entered Rome, but Pros- 
pero afterwards became re-united to King 
Frederick, who made him Grand Constable of 
Naples, and charged him with the care of taking 
Caesar Borgia to Spain. Prospero had the 
generosity not to look upon his prisoner, that 
he might not be supposed to exult in his face. 
Confident in the constancy of the lady of his 
affections, Prospero took for his companion a 
gentleman of low degree, to whom she unfor- 
tunately transferred the love he thought was his 
own. Feeling that he had been the author of his 
own ruin, Prospero took for his device the Bull 
of Perillus, which had proved the death of its 
inventor, " I suffer a death befitting my inven- 
tion." Another story in this connection. "Good 
King Ren6 " (ob. 1480) was Duke of Anjou 
and titular king of three kingdoms. He was also 


Duke of Lorraine, by right of his wife, and 
from him the houses of Lorraine and Guise de- 
scended. Imprisoned by his nephew, Ren6 
resigned his duchy and retired to Provence, 
where by his paternal rule the good King is said 
to have restored the Golden Age. Hoping 
better times would put him in possession or his 
kingdoms, he took for his device a bullock, bear- 
ing an escutcheon of his arms and with the 
motto *' Step by Step," meaning that though the 
bullock walks slowly, yet in time it achieves the 
end of the journey, and thus he hoped little by 
little to advance his cause, and arrive by slow 
degrees at the object of his ambition. 

The Pegasus of Corinth, an ancient city of 
Greece with a history full of vicissitude, is next 
in our chronology, but we have already attended 
to him in speaking of the heraldic horse, though 
not particularly. The old seal of the Knights 
Templars is said to have borne the device of two 
knights on one horse, and it is not improbable 
that to some rough representation of this device 
the members of the bar had given the classical 
name of Pegasus, and so adopted it as their arms. 
It was assumed in the time of Elizabeth, and still 
distinguishes the Inner Temple. This well- 
known figure of classical mythology also figures 
in several coats of arms, such as those of Mild- 
may, Drayton the poet, Earl of Dunravcn, 
Macquecn, &c. 

Crete, as already mentioned, was represented 


by the head of Minotaur, a figure of Greek 
mythology, half-man, half-bull, offspring of 
Pasiphae, and slain by Theseus, but the head 
does not appear in English heraldry. It was 
borne, however, by Gonsalvo Perez, an Italian, 
in mediaeval times, within a labyrinth, with the 
motto, " In silence and hope." 

Argos, the most ancient city of Peloponnesus 
and capital of Argolio, mergtd in the Roman 
province of Achaia, 146 B.C., had as its mark a 
wolf's head. Both the animal and its head figure 
frequently in our heraldry, the latter particularly 
as a crest. It is also found in a few early 
instances adopted by families into whose 
names some form of the word "Lou" enters. 
The head is perhaps more frequently borne than 
the whole animal. It may be rampant, saliant, 
combatant, statant, but most frequently simply 
passant. Lowe, of co. Wilts, displays a wolf 
passant. In the time of Edward II., Sir John 
Lc Low bore, amongst other elements, three 
wolves; and Sir William Videlou also three 
wolves. The families of Lovell, Wilson, 
Bushe, Grenford, Dickison, and numerous others 
also embrace the wolf in their arms in some form 
or other. John Lowe, Bishop of St. Asaph, 
1433, afterwards of Rochester, 1444-67, dis- 
played three wolves' heads erased in a bend. 
Mathias Corvinus, King of Hungary (ob. 1458), 
bore a crown, the canting arms of his family, 
tad also a wolf, those of his father, to which he 


added the motto, " He nourishes his own and 
other pledges of love," meaning that as the wolf 
treated with kindness Romulus and Remus, the 
offspring of man — his mortal foe — so he would 
also pardon and be merciful to his foes. 

The horse's head of Pharsalia we need not go 
further into, but the tortoise of Peloponnesus 
invites some little heraldic notice, although its 
armorial life is about as uninteresting as its 
natural one. This animal is usually borne dis- 
played tergiant, i.e., showing a full view of its 
back in plan. When standing upright it should 
be blazoned erect or hauriant. A silver tortoise is 
borne ny Gawdy; a tortoise with fleur-de-lis and 
a cross by Le Neve; a tortoise erect by Cooper, 
and three tortoises hauriant by Harpent. Cosmo 
de Medici, the first Grand Duke of Tuscany 
(ob. 1574), amongst his many ensigns adopted 
the tortoise with a snail, and the motto, "Hasten 
slowly," a device suggested by the crab and 
butterfly of Augustus, or the dolphin and anchor 
of Vespasian, " Do nothing rashly. Let your 
haste be restrained by caution." The same device 
was expressed by the dolphin and chameleon of 
Pope Paul UT, 

The Sphinx, the ancient symbol of subtlety, 
used by Scio, calls for no more English allusion; 
but Csesar Augustus, it is interesting: to observe, 
displayed as his seal a sphinx, implying thereby 
that the secret intentions of a prince should not 
be divulged. When Augustus was in Asia, he 


authorised Agrippa and Maecaenas, who adminis- 
tered affairs during his absence, to open and read 
the letters he addressed to the Senate before any- 
one else, and for this purpose he gave them a 
seal upon which was engraved a sphinx, the 
emblem of secresy. This device gave occasion 
to ridicule, and to the saying that it was not sur- 
prising if the sphinx proposed riddles, upon 
which Augustus discontinued it. 

We have already fully dealt with the horse, 
the badge of Thessaly, the largest division of 
ancient Greece. Philip the Second of Spain took 
the device of a horse leaping the barriers of a 
circus, with the motto from Juvenal, " One 
world is not enough," alluding to his empire 
in the New World. 

The story of the crescent and its adoption by 
the B}zantines has already been told, and its 
assumption as regards the 
the national emblem of 
Turkey. Let us now look 
at it briefly, from the 
point of view of a consti- 
tuent of our own armo- 
rials. It consists of a half- 
moon with the horns up- 
permost. A crescent as 
such is the ancient ensign 
of the Turks, and was 
without doubt introduced 
into heraldry (properly so called) by the 


Fig. 6. 


Crusaders, and hence in arms dating 
from Henry III.'s reign onwards it is very 
frequently employed. It is also the mark of 
cadence assigned to the second house. Frank 
de Boun, temp. Henry III., bore a crescent; 
so did, in the reign of Edward II., Sir 
William de Rythe, and so did Sir John de 
Hanlon, Ritheve, Wantland, Rous, Earl of 
Stradbroke, Dyson, and other valiant warriors. 
William de Kilkenny, Bishop of Ely, 1254-56, 
bore five golden crescents on a field of red. King 
Rene, to whom we have already referred, insti- 
tuted the order of the Golden Crescent, with the 
motto, ^^ Los en croissant^" meaning that we 
require fresh praise as we increase in virtue and 
honour. Vicenzo Gonzaga, fourth Duke of 
Sabionetta and Travetto, d. 1612, bore a crescent 
with the word, "5ic" — "Thus" — which some 
explain to mean, "Thus I shall grow more illus- 
trious." Ferdinand Gonzaga, sixth duke, went 
one better. He adopted the Sun, with the 
legend, " Not with borrowed light," meaning 
that he shone by his own merit alone. But we 
have more to say about the sun in heraldry 
later on. 

Egypt, as we have seen, was identified by a 
crocodile, an animal almost peculiar to that 
country. There are but two krown cases of the 
occurrence of this beast, which is the same as an 
alligator, in English armorials. The family of 
Hitchcock bear a chevron between three alii 


gators; and that of Dalbiac, inter alia, the head 
and forelegs of a crocodile. Cardinal Gonzaga 
(ob. 1525), the brother of Gian Francesco, re- 
penting of having been, with Cardinal Aragon, 
the means of the election of Leo X. to the Papal 
See, bore as a device a crocodile with the motto, 
" Crocodili lachrimaey^ as signifying the dis- 
simulation of those who are mil of fair words, 
but v/ith hatred in their hearts as the crocodile 
pretends to shed tears to attract passers by within 
his reach. " The crocodile,^'* says Albertus, 
" kills men and then weeps," hence the epithet 
of " crocodile's tears," so often alluded to by 
poets. Shakespeare makes Queen Margaret 
say that Henry is : 

" Too full of foolish pity; and Gloster's show 
Beguiles him, as the mournful crocodile 
With sorrow snares relenting passengers." 

Henry VL, Part it., Act 5, Sc. i. 

And Othello, in his rage, exclaims : 
" If that the earth could teem with woman's 
Each drop she falls would prove a crocodile." 

Act 5, Sc. I. 

Again, Lelia, in Beaumont and Fletcher, de- 
clares : 
" No, I would sooner trust a crocodile 

When he sheds tears, for he kills suddenly 

And ends our cares at once." 



No wonder, with this evil reputation, the 
crocodile does not figure prominently in heraldry. 

The Goths, it has been noted, were repre- 
sented by a bear, a famous and frequent charge 
in the armorial menagerie. He is frequently in 
German arms, and in some instances in Scottish, 
but is comparatively rare in English arms, 
though not infrequent as a crest, and sometimes 
the head or gambs are chosen for the latter apart 
from the body. The canton of Berne, in Swit- 
zerland, as well as the Abbey of St. Gall, exhibit 
the bear in their insignia. Bears also appear 
as supporters and badges. The family of 
Bernard, for obvious reasons, display a bear. In 
the time of Edward II., Sir Richard de Barling- 
ham assumed three silver bears upon a red field, 
and the Norfolk Flowerdews exhibit three sea or 
polar bears. Jean, Due de Berry (ob. 141 6) was 
the third son of the King of France. When 
only nine years old he fought by the side of his 
father at Poitiers, and was nine years in England 
as one of the hostages of the Treaty of Bretigny. 
Indulging in the hope that one day he would 
be King of France, and wishing his wife, whom 
he called Oursine, to partake of his expectations, 
he took a bear for device, with the motto, 
" Oursine, le tempo vendra." His tomb is now 
in the crypt of the cathedral at Bourges, his feet 
resting upon a she-bear. His son-in-law, Louis 
de Bourbon, is also described as coming out to 
Charles VI. well appointed in a robe of crimson 


velvet all covered with bears. The arms of 
Sonnachiosi Academy (Bologna), are a bear, 
which animal, according to Pliny and Aristotle, 
sleeps six continuous months of the year. The 
motto runs, " I hope by vigils to make up for 
sleep," implying that as the members had hither- 
to been lazy and indifferent to fame, henceforth 
they would strive by study to make up for lost 
time! As already mentioned, the arms of 
the canton of Berne consist of Gules, on a bend 
or, a bear sable. Hence, when Charles the 
Rash invited the Emperor to join the con- 
federacy against the Swiss cantons, he was 
referred, as answer to .^sop's fables, not to bar- 
gain for the skin of the bear before it was taken; 
while Hagenbach, his bailiff on the Swiss 
frontier, observed, " We must skin the bear of 
Berne to make ourselves coats." In a.d. 1213, 
the Emperor Frederick II. instituted, at the 
Abbey of St. Gall, the order of the Bear, St. 
Ursus being the patron. Flavio Orsini, who 
cultivated poetry, oratory, music, painting, 
sculpture, and other arts, adopted, as a device, 
a bear sucking its paws, to imply that he fed 
upon the resources of his own mind, as the 
bear fattens on his own paws, with the motto, 
*' Himself his own nourishment." The ancient 
family of Orsini, of Rome, had a bear for a 
device. This family was in perpetual rivalry 
and discord with the Colonna and Sonelli, 
with whom they were often in arms in the 


middle of the city, and bore for device a bear 
from whose nostrils issued the smoke of 
its breath, with the motto, " The moved abhor 
the moving." But when the Italian families 
began to form themselves into factions, so that 
in the time of the Emperor Frederick IL, the 
Milanese were divided into Visconti and Tor- 
riani; Genoa into Adorni and Fregosi; Florence 
into Guelphs and Ghibelines; and the Roman 
families into the Colonnese and Orsini, the 
Orsini took for a device the bear with an hour- 
glass, and the motto, " Time and the hour." 
Some attribute the device to the Orsini lords 
when they separated from Caesar Borgia. The 
Caesarini family had the device of a column with 
an eagle, their arms, upon the top, and a bear 
chained at the base, upon which was made this 
distich : — 

" Restore the eagle to the Emperor, the column 
to the Colonnas, 
The bear to Orsini, — the chains are yours 

The ensign of the Colonna family is a silver 
column, with base and capital of gold, the latter 
surmounted by a golden crown, the grant of the 
Emperor Louis of Bavaria, in acknowledgment 
of the service rendered to him by Stefano 
Colonna who, when chief senator of Rome, 
crowned Louis in the Capitol contrary to the 


wishes of the Pope. When Pope Alexander VL 
banished from Rome Cardinal Giovanni and the 
other Colonnese lords, the " twelve sons of 
iniquity," they took refuge in Naples and Sicily, 
and assumed as device a tuft of reeds shaken by 
the winds, with the motto, " We are bent, not 
broken, by the waves." King Frederick of 
Naples took them into his pay. Thus, after 
devastating their country by their private wars, 
the Colonna family found themselves reduced to 
live by the sword and serve any party who would 
employ them. Always in rivalry, and often in 
open arms with the Orsini, Pope Julius IL suc- 
ceeded in effecting a peace between the two 
families, on which occasion a medal was struck 
representing a bear embracing a column, with 
the m,otto, " To the country's safety." 


Fig. 7. 


The Bear (cont'd) — The Boar — The Thunderbolt. 

We have not yet done with our heraldic stories 
of friend Bruin. Titian^ the great Venetian 
painter, took for his device a bear licking her 
cub into shape, with the motto, " Nature is the 
more powerful art," — the strongest efforts of 
art can never attain the excellence of Nature. 
" The cubs of bears a living lump appear 
When whelp'd, and no determined figure 

The mother licks them into shape, and gives 
As much of form as she herself receives." 


Hence the scholastic phrase, " licking the cubs 
into shape." 

Gloster declares that Nature did disproportion 

. . . in every part, 
" Like to a chaos, or an unlick'd bear whelp." 
Henry VI., ^rd Part, Act 5, Scene 2. 

Felice Orsini, wife of Marcantonio Colonna, 
took as her device the constellation of the Little 



Bear, " Happy with no setting," alluding to her 
name and surname. Paolo Regio, Bishop of 
Vice Equense, took as his device, two bears 
playing in rain, with the motto, " It will clear 
up." As it is the nature of these animals 
to play when it rains, looking for fine weather, 
so he, in the troublous times in which he 
lived, looked to Heaven for sunshine and 
tranquillity. But the most famous of all bear 
devices, as far as our country is concerned, is the 
renowned bear and ragged staff, belonging to the 

Earls of Warwick. 
The title of Warwick 
has been borne sur 
cessively by the fam 
lies of Newburgh, 
Beauchamp, Nevill, 
P 1 a n t a genet, and 
Dudley. The bear 

EARL OF UAR^^CKCVd^olhrlt 

^'^ ^' lords of Warwick, 

and was adopted by the Newburghs, first 
lords after the Conquest. It is a con- 
tinuation of two badges of that ancient 
line, which sprang, according to family tradition, 
from Arthgal, one of the Knights of the Round 
Table. Arsh, or Narsh, in the British language, 
is said to signify a bear, hence this ensign was 
adopted as a rebus upon his name : 

" Arthgal, the first Earl of Warwick, in the 


days of King Arthur, and was one of the Round 
Table. This Arthgal took a here in his arms, 
for that, in Britisch, soundeth a here in English." 

Leland's Collectanea. 

Morvidus, another Earl of the same family, a 
man of wonderful valour, killed a giant with a 
young tree torn up by the roots, and hastily 
trimmed of its boughs. In memory of this 
exploit his successors bore as their cogni2:ance a 
silver staff, on a shield sable. This is only a bit 
of legendary heraldry. By marriage, the Earl- 
dom of Warwick devolved upon the Beauchamp 
family, " Bold Beauchamps," as they were styled. 

" That brave and godlike brood of Beauchamps, 
which so long. 
Them Earls of Warwick held ; so hardy, great 

and strong. 
That after, of that name it to an adage grew, 
If any man adventurous hapt to shew. 
Bold Beauchamp men him termed, if none so 
bold as he." 

Drayton, Polyolbion. 

The adventures of the valiant Sir Guy 
Beauchamp, who 

"... did quell that monstrous cow. 
The passengers that used, from Dunsmorc to 



are fully related in " The Legend of Sir Guy," 
published in the Percy Reliques : 

" On Dunsmore Heath, I also slewe, 
A monstrous wyld and cruell beast, 
Called the Dun-cow of Dunsmore Heath; 
Which many people had opprest. 

" Some of her bones in Warwicke yett 
Still for a monunient doe lye; 
And there exposed to lookers' viewe. 
And wondrous strange, they may espye." 

— The Legend of Sir Guy. 

'* The noble Earl of Warwick, that was calPd Silr 

The infidels and pagans stoutlie did defie; 
He slew the giant Brandimore; and after was 

the death 
Of that most ghastly dun-cow, the divilc of 

Dunsmore Heath." 

St. George for England (Ibid). 

And again (Ibid). 

" At once she kickt, and pusht, at Guy 
But all that would not fright him, 
Who wav'd his winyard o'er Sir Loyn 
As if he'd gone to knight him." 

But enough of the doughty Sir Guy. Thomas 
dc Beauchamp, fourth carl (ob. 1406), bequeathed 


to his son Richard a bed of silk, " embroidered 
with bears," likewise the harness with " ragged 
staves." His effigy on the monument erected to 
him and his wife in St. Mary's Church, Warwick, 
has the jupon charged with cross crosslets — 
the Beauchamp arms; the plate of his elbow 
and scabbard of his sword are decorated with 
ragged staves; his feet rest upon a bear, and 
the monument is profusely decorated with the 
family badge. His son Richard fifth Earl — 
the very personification of Chaucer's true knight, 

" loved chivalrie. 

Truth and honor, freedom and curtesie." 
was sent on an embassy to the Council of Con- 
stance. In a tilting match which took place 
before the Emperor Sigismund and his Empress, 
a German knight challenged Earl Richard " for 
his lady's sake," and was killed in the encounter. 
The Empress was so struck with the Earl's 
prowess that she 

" Toke the earl's livery, a bere, from a 
knyghtes shoulder, and fer great love and favour 
she sett it on her shuldre; then Erie Richard 
made oone of perle and precious stones and 
offered herr that, and she gladly and lovyinglv 
received it." 

On the death of the Duke of Bedford, Earl 
Richard was appointed Licutenant-General of 
France, and embarked for that country. Being 
overtaken by a, tempest, he caused himself to be 


attired in the tabard of his arms, he, his wife and 
son to be lashed together to the mast of the vessel, 
that if their bodies were found they might all be 
interred with the honours that belonged to their 
race. But he died at Rouen, 1439, ^^^ body 
being brought to St. Mary, Warwick, where he 
has a magnificent tomb, in his epitaph bears and 
staves being introduced as stops. On the death 
of Earl Richard's grand-daughter, the honours 
of the illustrious house of Beauchamp devolved 
upon the Lady Anne Beauchamp, wife of 
Richard, Earl of Salisbury, who was subse- 
quently created Earl of Warwick, 1442; the 
Great Earl of Warwick (Neville), " the King- 
" Proud setter up and puller down of Kings," 

Henry VL^ Part iii.y Act 5, Sc. 2. 

the greatest and best of our old Norman 
chivalry, kinglier in pride, in state, in possession, 
and in renown than the King himself. 

" For who lived King, but I could dip^ his grave, 
And who durst smile when Warwick bent his 

Henry Vl.y Part «/*., Act 5, Sc. 2. 

First attached to the House of York, he was 
made Captain-General of Calais, where he was so 
popular that everyone bore his badge, no man 
esteeming himself gallant whose head was not 
adorned with his ragged stafF, nor no door frc- 


qucntcd that had not his white cross painted 
thereon. Stowe mentions his coming to London 
in 1458, with 600 men, all in red jackets, em- 
broidered with ragged staves before and behind, 
who were lodged in Warwick Lane, and that in 
his house there were often six oxen eaten at a 

Shakespeare constantly designates the great 
Earl by his cognizance. We have already sug- 
gested that a proper appreciation of the poet's 
glorious effusions cannot be understood without 
some knowledge of the art-science we are treat- 
ing. In the 2nd Part of Henry ^/., Act 5, 
Sc. I, the Duke of York says : 

" Call hither to the stake my two brave bears. 

That, with the very shaking of their chains, 

They may astonish these fell lurking curs; 

Bid Salisbury and Warwick come to me." 

(Enter Warwick and Salisbury.) 

Clifford : 
" Are these thy bears ? we'll bait thy bears to 
And manacle the bearward in their chains, 
If thou dar'st bring them to the baiting place. 

" Oft have I seen a hot o'crwecning cur 

Run back and bite, because he was withheld; 
Who, being suffer'd with the bear*s fell paw, 
Hath clapp'd his tail between his legs, and 



And such a piece of service will you do, 
If you appear yourselves to match Lord 

And again : 

Clifford : 

" Might I but know thee by thy household 

Warwick : 

" Now by my father's badge, old NeviPs crest, 
The rampant bear chained to the ragged staff, 
This day I'll lift aloft my burgonet . . 
Even to affright thee with a view thereof." 

Clifford : 
" And from thy burgonet I'll rend thy bear, 
And tread it under foot with all contempt, 
Despite the bearward that protects the bear." 

Of course, this was an idle boast of Clifford's, 
because he did nothing of the kind. 

When, resentful of the injuries he had received 
from King Edward, Warwick joined the Lan- 
castrians, a numerous army flew to his standard, 
everyone was proud of wearing his cognizance, 
the bear and ragged stafF, in his cap, some of 
gold enamelled, others of silver, and those who 
could not afford the precious metals cut them 
out of white silk or cloth. At Barnet, however, 
was killed the mighty Earl. The Earldom of 
Warwick was revived by Edward VI., in favour 


of John Dudley, afterwards Duke of Northum- 
berland, father of Lord Guildford Dudley and 
of Robert, Earl of Leicester, the ill-fated 
favourite of Elizabeth. The title devolved on 
his elder brother Ambrose, but Leicester adopted 
the Warwick cognizance. Leicester's New 
Year's gift, in 1574, to Queen Elizabeth was a 
fan of white feathers set in a handle of gold and 
precious stones, on each side a white bear and 
two pearls hanging, and a lion rampant, with 
a white muzzled bear at its feet. The ragged 
staves are also audaciously introduced, with true 
love-knots of pearls and diamonds, in a head- 
dress he presented to his royal mistress in the 
twenty-second year of her reign. 

Poor Amy Robsart! But she had the melan- 
choly satisfaction of knowing that her unfaithful 
husband paid a big price for his infidelity. How- 
ever, she had the best of the " Virgin Queen," 
•nasmuch as she had Dudley's passionate love, 
and she alone. 

In Warwickshire there is a proverb that " The 
bear wants a tail and cannot be a lion," which is 
explained thus : — When Robert Dudley, Earl of 
Leicester, was Governor of the Low Countries, 
disusing his own coat of the green lion with two 
tails, he signed all instruments with the bear and 
ragged staff. Being suspected of an ambitious 
design of making himself absolute over the Low 
Countries (as the lion is the king of beasts), some 
of the enemies of the Earl and friends to the 


freedom of the Dutch, wrote under his crest, set 
up in public places, in Latin, the axiom : 

" The bear, never can prevail 
To lion it for want of tail." 

This proverb is applied to those who, not 
content with their own condition, aspire to what 
is above their worth to deserve or their power to 
achieve. And so we leave poor Bruin. We 
have dealt with him at great length, but in view 
of the remarkable manner in which he figures 
in antique and modern history, in Continental 
as well as English Heraldry, in English art and 
poetry, the attention bestowed upon him is not 
ill-deserved. He still serves as the badge of the 
county of Warwick, and Drayton did not regard 
him as unworthy of notice. We will quote 
in support two excerpts : — 

" Stout Warwickshire, her ancient badge the 

bear — " 
" Quoth warlike Warwickshire, Pll bind the 

sturdy bear " ; 
and " Stout Warwickshire " has every reason to 
feel proud of ursus under his many colours. 
Personally, we have never met him in the flesh, 
nor have any wish to do so; but where he appears 
in art, or letters, or Heraldry, he is a welcome 
guest, because he conjures up in our minds so 
much that is interesting and beautiful. As a 
parent he may well be taken into consideration 
in respect of his licking young cubs into shape. 


The Franks were represented by a lion, the 
Saxons by a horse; but we have ahready dealt 
fully with both emblems. Phrygia, a country 
of Asia Minor, a Roman province, 47 B.C., and 
annexed to the Turkish Empire in 1392, bore 
a sow as its device. Although tasteful on the 
table, it must be admitted she is not a pleasant 
stable companion. The pig, pure and simple, 
is almost ignored in English Heraldry, and his 
better-half likewise. Continental Heraldry does 
not treat him with the same contempt. The 
Marquises of Maillane and Houdetot, as well 
as the Norman family of Hautot, all bear black 
pigs. In his wilder form as a boar he comes into 
his own. The word boar implies the wild boar, 
and he plays a considerable part in Heraldry, and 
in poetry, as we shall later see. He occurs, per- 
haps, more frequently in Scottish than in 
English coats of arms. He was called by the 
old Heralds, sanglier. A young wild boar is 
termed a gricCy and is borne by the family of that 
name. The term marcassin is also used for a 
young wild boar, and this should be represented 
with tail hanging down instead of twisted. The 
term hog is also employed. The boaty besides 
being represented in the various ways common 
to other animals, i.e.y passanty rampanty statanty 
etc., may be represented enraged. It may also 
be differenced as crinedy tuskedy and so forth. 
More frequently the heads were borne than the 
whole animal, and are represented as lying length- 


ways, unless expressed otherwise. The family of 
Trewarthen bear a boar passant; so does that of 
BoaTy for apparent reasons. Grice bears three 
grices passant, on a bend. Indeed, the boar in 
some phase or another distinguishes the arms 
of Kellety DanskinCy Swynethwayte, Craddocky 
Cochraney and Bethaniy and a good many others. 
In the time of Edward II., Sir John de Swyne- 
ford bore three boar's heads, and so did his com- 
rade, or contemporary. Sir John dc Wynsing- 
tone, but differently tinctured. Before that, m 
the reign of Henry III., Adam de Swynebourne, 
bore three boars as his armorial cognizance. 
Later, Bushcy Bishop of Bristol, 1542-54, em- 
ployed a fesse between two boars passant. Boars 
are sometimes found as supporters, for instance, 
as dexter supporters of the arms of Campbelly 
of Perth, and in one M.S. they are seen as 
supporters to the royal arms of Richard III. 
This same King had, when Duke of Gloster, 
adopted the boar as his badge, and it is supposed 
that he called one of his heralds Blanche Sanglier 
from this. The wild boar is also occasionally 
used as a cresty as well as the boar's head. 

It has been mentioned that ancient Roman 
princes are sometimes represented holding a 
thunderbolt, to intimate that their power on 
earth was as great as that of Jupiter in heaven. 

The thunderbolt figures as a bearing in Eng- 
lish Heraldry. It is a charge derived from the 
classic mythology, in which the emblem is as- 


cribed to Jupiter. In one instance it is only 
outlined, or chased, on the escutcheon. It is the 
crest of the families of Carnagie and of Hawley. 
The family of Tomyris discloses Jupiter's 
thunderbolt, shafted and winged, dropped 
from an azure sky — and the names of Edmonds 
and Strickson are also identified with Jupiter 
in this fashion in their arms, although the 
latter grant is a contemptible eighteenth- 
century design. Charles V., Emperor of 
Germany and Austria (1579)5 bore an eagle 
with a thunderbolt on one side and a branch of 
laurel on the other as one of his devices, with 
the motto, " To each his own," meaning that 
he held the world, in peace or war, at his will. 
The ancients believed that thunder put a stop 
to councils, because when Jove thunders it is 
not lawful for people to discourse. To conquer 
this superstition, Charles, when it thundered at 
a diet he was holding at Frankfort upon religious 
matters, observed, " It thunders that we may 
act with fear," which was made a device of 
thunderbolts, with the motto, " With fear." 
Vespasiano Gonzaga, Duke of Sabionetta and 
Travetto, adopted the device of thunderbolts 
striking three mountain-tops, with the motto, 
" They strike the summits." We do not know 
anything about him, but he strikes us as being 
rather a presumptuous sort of gentleman, and, 
what is more, the mountains never felt any 
disastrous consequences ! 


The Grasshopper — The Cornucopia — Flowbrs— 
The Ostrich — The Shield — The Trident. 

The crescent already being disposed of, wc 
now come to the classic grasshopper, which the 
Grecian ladies wore in their hair, to distinguish 
them from plebeian women. 

We only find the insect occasionally in English 
Heraldry. Louis^ Griffiths^ Woodward^ and 
Gresham make use of it as a charge : and there 
is a much older Norman family, Mouline^ which 
does not disdain it. The Grioni of Venice used : 
Azure, on a bend or three grasshoppers sable, 
and the Marquises d^Estoublon and the Se galas y 
both French families, bear crickets and cicalas. 

As already indicated, attributes or symbols 
have been employed in painting and sculpture 
in all nations where these arts were practised, and 
were added to figures to intimate their particular 
character. According to our rather novel 
method, we will take them in the order they 
appear in our chapter which foreshadowed. We 
will take first the Cornucopia, the symbol of 
abundance. In English Heraldry it would not 
appear to figure, and only in one instance do we 



discover its employment in Continental Heraldry. 
Andrea Alciato (ob. 1650), an Italian juris- 
consult, renowned for his eloquence and 
knowledge of the law, was, it is extraordinary to 
notice, author of one of the earliest books of 
emblems, published 1552. It has been trans- 
lated into almost every European language. He 
took for his own ensign a cornucopia, or horn 
of Amalthsea, with the caduceus of Mercury, 
implying that the study of law and literature 
might be combined. 

We do not quite see the connection, but it is 
to be presumed that Andrea knew what he was 

Hope was anciently distinguished by a flower- 
bud. Now, flowers of every hue and clime enter 
largely into our armorial life, and what does 
not that is poetic and beautiful.-^ Shakespeare, 
as we all know, or should know, knew how to 
treat a rose, either in nature or Heraldry; but 
we will leave " the Swan of Avon " out for the 
moment, and proceed with the flower in its 
generic way; hereafter, we have to treat of specific 

Flowers find a varied expression in Heraldry, 
but the rose and lily are the most frequent. 
Both of these, however, are usually represented 
in conventional form, though the natural forms 
of each also occur. Of others, the planta genista 
has been brought into note from being the badge 
of the Plantagenet Kings; the trefoil, or, rather, 


the shamrocky from being the badge of Ireland; 
and the thistle from being that of Scotland. The 
daisy^ the -primrose^ the nettle^ ^he violet, the 
columbine, and the honeysucklcy so common in 
our lanes, and the poppy and bluebell in our 
fields, and the marigold in our marshes. The 
tulip, narcissus, chrysanthemum, carnation, gilly- 
flower, and pansy are the garden plants which 
have been introduced into arms. In the French 
coats-of-arms it is much the same. The rose 
and the lily, in both the conventional and the 
natural forms, stand at the head of the list. Both 
these two we treat elsewhere. In some few cases 
the term flower occurs, i.e., where a ground is to 
have flowers scattered over it, and these can only 
be represented by dots of red and blue, sprinkled 
over what is supposed to represent the green 
grass. Flowers, also, are referred to in the bear- 
ing a chaplet of flowers; but as they are, as a 
rule, blazoned gules, they are intended for roses. 
Flower-pots are occasionally named. 

The palm, though not frequently used in 
English Heraldry, is common in French. The 
branches are symbols of Victory, and were so 
regarded by the ancients. With the palm, the 
cocoa-nut tree and the China-cokar were asso- 
ciated. The author's ancient crest happens to 
be a palm-branch, and shin-bone, saltire-wise; it 
looks as if it might be interpreted as if you want 
trouble, you may have it; on the other hand, 
if you want peace, you can have it, but this the 


deponent, being of a peaceful and studious turn, 
does not know; he does know that it is a very 
ugly crest from an aesthetic and artistic point of 
view. The palm branch figures in the arms 
of Vauly and of Morrall. A palm tree is borne 
in the arms granted to Earl Nelson, also in those 
of Corn foot. Palm branches also occur in the 
achievements of the families of Montgomeryy 
Kennaway, &c., but after 
all is said and done, it 
constitutes an ungainly 
and braggart charge in 

The sceptre we have 
illustrated. We come to 
a more pleasant feature — 
the olive^ the ancient rrmx -n^ r at tk-^ 
emblem of Peace. The ¥JlNN/SS//J\L 
tree is occasionally borne, ^^^* ^' 

but more frequently slips and branches of it, the 
latter especially in the dove's mouth, for reasons 
which go back to the days of Noah and his ark. 
The fruit seems only to occur in French arms, 
and is not unknown on French tables! There 
is an English instance of a pun in this connec- 
tion, supplied by the arms of the Bedfordshire 
family of Olivier^ which display an olive tree 
on a mount. Roundelly of York, Vanhatton, of 
London, and Kennaway, of Devon, also embody 
palm-branches in their arms. Crossing the 
Channel, we get several curious and interest- 


ing usages of the tree in question. Anne, 
daughter of Frederic the Fair (Arch-duke of 
Austria), Queen of Poland, used a palm-tree as 
her cognizance, with the motto, " Thine all 
these." Francesco Maria Delia Rovere (ob. 
1538), fourth Duke of Urbino, showed himself 
not unworthy in war and letters of his great- 
grandfather, Frederic of Montefeltro. When 
scarcely eighteen, his uncle, Pope Julius IL, gave 
him the command of the Papal troops. Fran- 
cisco degli Alidosi, Cardinal of Pavia, accused 
him of causing the loss of Bologna. Unable to 
obtain an audience to justify himself to the 
Pope, Francesco Maria vented his indignation 
upon the Cardinal, whom he killed, when meet- 
ing him in the street at Ravenna. Leo X. 
deprived him of his sovereignty, and gave it to 
Lorenzo de Medici. After a fruitless contest, 
Francesco Maria retired with his artillery to 
Mantua, but returned to Urbino on the death 
of Leo X. Francesco bore the family arms of 
the Delia Rovere family, the oak and acorns. 
After the death of the Cardinal of Pavia, he 
assumed on a field gules, a lion rampant hold- 
ing a rapier, with the motto, "Courage is not 
wanting in the noble beast," a device invented 
by Castiglione as an assertion of Francesco 
Maria's worth. On the recovery of his duchy, 
at the death of Leo X., and his reconciliation 
with Cardinal Giulio de Medici, he took for 
device upon his standard the palm tree, bent 


towards the ground by a block of marble, and 
the mottOj " Though bent, it springs again," in 
token of his successful struggle against evil 
fortune. Recrossing the silver streak, poor 
Mary Stuart, amongst her numerous devices, 
also typified herself in the character of a palm- 
tree, with the motto, " Innate virtue resisteth 
oppression," but it did not succeed, however. 
Queen Margaret of Navarre, daughter of 
Henry II., first wife of Henry IV., and the 
last of the Valois (ob. 161 5), adopted in her 
youth as her original device a palm-tree over- 
shadowing an altar, with the motto, " Being 
the highest, she rises to pious uses " ; but, as a 
matter of history, she did nothing of the sort. 

For a reason already given, the Egyptians 
chose the ostrich feather as the symbol of Truth 
and Justice. We will now bring that precious 
feminine ornament into our armorial purview. 
The three ostrich feathers of the Prince of 
Wales, with the motto, " I serve," needs no 
recalling, even to the least imperial. The bird 
itself occurs but in one or two coats of arms. 
MatthewSy of Cornwall, bears a silver ostrich; 
Boy ton, a fesse between three; MacMahon and 
Ryed have also embraced the bird with the repu- 
tation of burying its head in the sand. The 
ostrich, speaking from personal experience, is not 
the only biped who acts so foolishly. 

Plumes were naturally employed more fre- 
quently as badges and crests than as charges in 


coats of arms, and when three or more occur 
they are termed a plume. The best-known 
example is the plume of ostrich feathers borne 
by the Prince of Wales, a cognizance peculiar to 
the Royal Family. The favourite legend that 
Prince Edward received the ostrich feathers from 
the casque of John of Luxembourg, King of 
Bohemia, at the battle of Cressy, 1346, will 
scarcely bear investigation, or that the motto, 
" Ich Dien," referred to the Bohemian King 
serving the French King as a stipendiary. Still, 
the true origin has never been satisfactorily 
ascertained. Since the time of Henry VIII., the 
ostrich feathers have been encircled by a coronet. 
The arms of Harman include three ostrich 
feathers; Vidal^ of Devon, one; Jervis bears six 
black ostrich feathers, on a silver field. There 
are many other feathers and plumes in Heraldry, 
but they do not concern us here. In accordance 
with custom, or our habit, we will cross the 
Channel, where, usually, we find more armorial 
anecdotes. We find at least two curious little 

Alfonso d'Avalos, Marquis del Vasto, or del 
Guasto (ob. 1546), was a nephew of Pescara, 
whom he succeeded in the command of the army 
of Charles V. On the death of Antonio de Leyva 
he was made commander of the Milanese. He 
was brave, but false and vain. He was defeated 
at Cerisoles, i ^44, by the Due d'Ens:hien, hav- 
ing boastfully brought cart-loads of handcuffs 


with him for his prisoners. Disappointed that 
Antonio de Leyva should be made, by the 
Emperor and Pope Clement VII., General of the 
League, the Marquis consoled himself by saying 
that, though not placed by them in the high 
position he coveted, yet they could not prevent 
his going before others in deeds of valour. 
Giovio gives him as device the ostrich, which 
uses its wings as sails in order to outstrip all 
others, with the motto, " If I am not borne upon 
wings, at least in cunning I outstrip them all." 
This device he wore embroidered upon his 
saddle and surcoat. The Marquis had a subse- 
quent career, but it need only be followed by 
those who care to interest themselves in the 
gentleman; suffice it to say, he had a very fair 
opinion of himself, and always let people see 
it. Count Peter of Navarre was a man of a 
very different stamp. The Vauban of his age 
was a Biscayan General. Having learnt the art 
of mining from the Genoese, and improved upon 
it himself, he accompanied Gonsalvo of Cordova 
to Naples, was at Cerignola, and made his first 
successful trial at the siege of Castell Nuovo. 
Navarre was made prisoner at the battle of 
Ravenna, and his sovereign, Ferdinand the 
Catholic, refused to pay his ransom. On the 
accession of Francis, he found Navarre still lan- 
guishing in prison and paid his ransom — 20,000 
golden crowns — but Navarre, before he would 
accept the bounty of the King, again addressed 


himself to his old master, even now entreating 
to be liberated and placed in his former employ. 

On the relentless refusal of Ferdinand, Navarre 
transmitted to him a resignation of all the grants 
made to him as a reward for his services, and 
took an oath of allegiance to the French monarch, 
to whom his talents and experiences were of sig- 
nal service, and to whom he ever after retained 
unshaken fidelity. Before accepting his bounty, 
Navarre passed into the service of Francis L; 
directed the passage of the Alps; was at Marig- 
nano and Bicocea; was taken prisoner at Avessa; 
and Charles V., who never forgave desertion 
to the enemy, is said to have caused him to be 
smothered in prison at Naples, in 1528. No 
captain of his age so well understood the art of 
sieges and fortifications. In consequence of his 
skill in mining, by which he blew up the Castell 
Nuovo and other fortresses, Giovio gave him 
for device a pair of ostriches, with their eyes 
fixed upon their eggs, it being said that the 
ostrich never hatches her eggs by sitting upon 
them, but by the rays of light and warmth from 
her eyes. The motto appertaining is, " From 
others — (that is from other sources) — we prevail 
in valour." 

Southey alludes to this strange feature of 
parentage, thus : 

" With such a look as fables say, 

The mother ostrich fixes on her eggs, 


Till that intense affection 
Kindle its light of life." 

One more reference to this estimable bird, 
whom we are getting to regard as fondly a8 the 
pelican, and we must pass on. The device of 
Anne of Bohemia — the good Queen Anne — was 
an ostrich with a nail in its beak. Why, we do 
not know, but no doubt she had pious reasons 
for the pretty little fancy. 

In our precursory chapter we pointed out 
that the characters of ancient mythology and 
paganism had each their symbol, by which they 
were distinguished. Let us see how far such 
emblems have passed into the realm of armorial 
illustration. Several, of course, we have already 
treated — Minerva, the goddess of wisdom and 
war in Roman mythology; and in Grecian, 
Athene, or Pallas, who sprang 
from the head of Zeus in com- 
plete armour — a most fertile 
brain must have had Zeus! — 
although a frequent device on 
classic gems and seals, in 
English Heraldry is a total 
outcast. We have heads of 
SaxonSy princeSy Saracens, 
Turksy MoorSy negroesy and 
savage Sy but no classic heads, GRIFFITH 
which is rather to be deplored, f-io- 10. 

because they symbolize so muck that js 


interesting and educational. As a set-off, in 
episcopal and other mediaeval seals antique 
classic gems were frequently inserted in the 
metal matrices, with the appropriate designs so 
devised as to give them historic surroundings. 
Many could be cited. Marguerite, Duchess of 
Berry and Savoy, daughter of Francis I. (ob. 
1574), was a little more perceptive. She married 
(1559) Emanuel Philibert, the hero of St. 
Quentin. After the example of her father and 
her aunt, this Princess cultivated letters and the 
arts. Ronsard celebrated her under the desig- 
nation of Pallas. On her marriage, she took 
the shield of Minerva, with the motto, " Pru- 
dence the guardian of affairs,'- and a very good 
motto, too, although whether Marguerite of 
France carried this axiom into practice we cannot 
stay to enquire. 

The succeeding figure is the trident of Nep- 
tune^ and to that weapon no one in our day will 
dispute his title. Britannia, as a matter of fact, 
holds it in trust for him, and so far has done it 
pretty well. In mythology, Neptune was god 
of the Mediterranean Sea, and if we are not 
mistaken, he keeps a very shrewd eye upon it 
still. As an individual, or perhaps we had better 
describe him as a minor deity, he only occurs 
once in a coat of arms. Between ourselves, the 
achievement does not impress us. It was 
granted to Heard, of co. Somerset, by Lancas- 
ter's Herald, afterwards Garter King of Arms, 


in 1762. He ought to have known better, but 
he didn't; at the same time, this is no reflection 
upon hoary old Neptune, who knew more about 
the sea than the Garter in question knew about 

It seems that this singular coat bears some 
reference to an escape from shipwreck. There 
is Neptune crowned with an Eastern crown, 
with his trident, issuing from a stormy ocean, 
grasping the head cf a ship's mast appearing 
above the waves as part of a wreck; a polar star 
is added to fill in the picture. That Garter 
ought to have gone down in that ship, but it 
just proves my original contention, that since 
the end of the sixteenth century. Heraldry has 
been nothing more than a parody and a farce. 
The trident itself has only a small place in 
English armorials, all of which are practically 
of modern date. Russell bears three with a 
fesse between; Nicolas^ inter alia, the same 
symbol, in an achievement dating from 18 16; 
Ochterlony bears a lion holding a trident — a 
most incongruous association, but it is a piece 
of eighteenth-century Heraldry, and you cannot 
expect anything better; Dyce repeats the same 
ridiculous idea. Fancy, a lion, with a trident! 
To the credit of the Continental heralds, they 
have attempted no such anomaly or stupidity. 
This is where your real student of Heraldry 
loses his temper, an equally silly thing to do. 


The Harp — Thb Apple — The Garland. 

Apollo was distinguished by a harp. Rightly 
so, since he is the god of music and poetry. In 
ancient mythology his alternative name was 
Phoebus, son of Jupiter and Latona, god of the 
Sun. For the moment we will respect him as 
the god of music and of poetry, and, incident- 
ally, of Heraldry which is the soul of both. 
To begin with, in Heraldry, the harp is best 
known as the ensign of the kingdom of Ireland. 
It is also borne by one or two families. It first 
appears crowned amongst the royal badges on the 
accession of the Stuarts. The head and wings 
of an angel have been added in late examples, 
but without authority. The Irish name, cloy- 
shackeSy seems to be applied in one M.S. to the 
harp. The arms of Ireland are on a blue field, 
a golden harp, with silver strings. Several 
Irish families also display proudly the insignia 
of their country. Dobbin bears three harps; 
Harpes field three also; and Fogarty, amongst 
others, charges the same beautiful instrument. 
The insignia of Ireland have been very dif- 



ferently described by early heraldic writers; 
indeed, so much doubt has prevailed concerning 
them that in the reign of Edward IV., a com- 
mission was issued to enquire what they were. 
According to this Commission, they were three 
crowns in pale. Three harps occur as the arms 
of Ireland upon certain coins of Elizabeth, a.d. 
1 561. The unauthorised national flag of Ireland 
is a golden harp, stringed silver, upon a green 
field. Although our Kings were styled Lords 
of Ireland from the time of the Conquest, and 
even though Henry VIII. was, in 1541, declared 
King of that island by Act of Parliament, its 
armorial ensigns were not quartered with those 
of England until the accession of James I. They 
are now held to be azure y a harp, oTy stringed 
argent. Crest, upon a wreathy or and azurey a 
tower of the first, from the port a hart springing 
argenty also a harpy ory stringed argenty but this 
is probably the badge. 

It would appear curious that the Latins never 
touched the harp; but, if we look below the 
surface, the instrument, we find, was almost the 
monopoly of the Celtic and Gaelic races. For 
proof, one has only to study Irish melody and 
Gaelic minstrelsy. The Latins, of course, had, 
and have, their national equivalents; but we 
contend that the harp, as a harp, belongs entirely 
to the Cornish, Welsh, Irish, and Scotch. But 
we are not, or ought not to be, talking about 
music, since Heraldry is our theme ; yet 


Heraldry, so intimately associated with all the 
other arts, tempts many such digressions. 

Juno was delineated anciently as a peacock. 
She was, according to classic mythology, the 
sister of Jupiter; in the Greek, she is known as 
Hera. It is notorious that this particular bird 
is an emblem of vanity, and so it might only be 
anticipated that but few families bear it in their 
arms. It is usually borne affrontee, with the 
head turned towards the dexter^ and with the 
tail expanded when the peacock is said to be in 
his pride. The pea-hen is also found. The few 
families bearing the bird are, Pawne, three 
peacocks in their pride; Munt^ the same; 
Peacocky a Scottish family, likewise; Smyth^ 
Smith, and Ridgway also employ the bird in one 
way or another. The Continent gives us some 
more illuminating examples, as we often dis- 
cover. Amadeus I., Count of Maurienne (circa 
1048), son of Humbert I., founder of the House 
of Savoy, was given the title of " Long-tail " 
because he followed the Emperor, Henry III., to 
Verona, with a magnificent suite, and took the 
peacock as his badge, with the motto, " My tail 
is my glory." This is more legendary than 
historic, because, as far as we know, personal 
mottoes in the eleventh century were not 
adopted. All the same, it is worth noting in 
passing. The peacock in tts pride was the 
ancient badge of the house of Cybo, of Genoa. 
Alano Cybo (ob. 1457) was Viceroy of Naples, 


under Ren6 of Anjou and his successor. When 
Alano was sent by the Republic of Genoa to 
assist Rene against Alfonso of Aragon, who had 
besieged Naples, Ren6 gave him the motto he 
used himself, " Leaulti passe toutJ^^ This, with 
the peacock, as above defined, was adopted by 
Alano and by his son. The unhappy Joan of 
Castile (ob. 1555), daughter of Isabella and 
Ferdinand, succeeded, on her mother's death, 
1504, to the throne of Castile, jointly with her 
husband, Philip the Fair of Austria. She 
adopted, in its proper sense, the device of a 
peacock in its pride, upon the terrestial globe, 
with the motto, " All vanity," — a truth as far as 
she was concerned, — Philip dying 1506, she be- 
came insane with grief at his loss. Her father, 
Ferdinand, continued to reign, and this per- 
petuated the union of Castile with Aragon. 
Barbara, of Este (ob. 1572), wife of Alfonso II., 
fifth Duke of Este, daughter of Emperor 
Ferdinand, had a peacock on the globe with the 
same motto as that used by the unfortunate Joan 
of Castile. It was her husband who imprisoned 
Tasso, from which it may be fairly deduced that 
in those days, as in ours, people of high degree 
had their troubles as well as those of low, 
although it must be confessed those of the 
former were always of their own making. 

In ancient mythology, Venus was identified by 
an apple, the prize ofbeauty. If we remember 
rightly, Eve did a nasty bit of business with the 


ftame fruit; but it is ill to speak harshly of the 
dead, especially after this lapse of time. Venus 
was the goddess of Love, according to Roman 
mythology. According to Homer, she was the 
daughter of Zeus and Dione, to later poets, of 
foam of sea, which seems a little far-fetched. 
She does not appear to have the best of 
characters. She married Vulcan^ but had many 
amours; at all events, she bore ^neas to 
Anchises, so, whatever her parentage, she was 
scarcely respectable according to Little Bethel 
teaching. In English Heraldry, the apple-tree 
itself is rarely borne; but the fruit is more fre- 
quently so. The house of Estwire displays an 
apple-tree ; that of Conhaniy a bird standing 
upon an apple; the applet on family exhibit three 
apples and so does that of Apulhy^ Havelton 
and Harlewyn also have the same fruit in their 
shields. The " apple of Grenada " is men- 
tioned before, in discussing the pomegranate. 
Pomegranates are borne by the English families 
of Grange^ Granger and Barr, and in France 
by Fillers^ Grandin and Grenier. Mary Stuart, 
ill-fated Queen of Scotland and France, a strain 
of melancholy moralising occupying her mind, 
wrought as an elaborate specimen of her 
industry in needlework, an apple-tree growing 
on a thorn, with the motto, " Through chains 
it increases," implying thereby that her cause 
was increased by her captivity. 

Ceres follows with a garland of wheat^ and 


rightly so, as she was goddess of seed and harvest. 
In Heraldry, there are many garlands, but here 
we will treat of vjheat first. This was represented 
in the older arms in sheaves only, to which the 
name garb was given; and under this form wheat 
continued to be most frequently represented. In 
later examples, it will be seen they were often 
banded of another tincture. In later arms ears 
of wheat^ or corn^ and of other grains, such as 
barley^ oatSy and rye^ have been adopted as devices. 
When bearded they are said to be aulned. To 
the stalk and ear thus borne the French give the 
name of epis, and when the stalk is of a different 
tincture, it is tige of such tincture. The wheat 
in the arms of the family of Graundorge is found 
blazoned guinea-wheat; but no doubt from the 
name, i.f ., grain d^orge^ barley grain is intended. 
It may be, that from a play on the name (grand) 
the term big-wheat arose, a term adopted in 
blazoning the arms of Bigland and Bignell; but 
an authority notes big as a kind of barley. Bain 
of Berwick bears a wheat-sheaf between three 
thistles; Richards of Westminster, inter alia^ 
three garbs in bend ; Bere^ Merefield^ and 
several others also bear, as their armorial cogniz- 
ance, wheat in some form, colour, fashion, or 
other. This brings us to the garb itself; that is, 
a wheat sheafs as distinguished from the wheat 
ear. When a sheaf of any other grain is borne, 
the name of the grain must be so expressed, 
e.g.y the barley-garbs^ in the Company of 


Brewers, From early times they arc found of 
various tinctures. When the stalks are of one 
tincture and the ears of another, the term ears 
must be used with reference to the latter. The 
garbs, as is well known, figure in the arms of 
Chester. There are several historical examples 
of the same. In the time of Henry IIL, the 
Count of Chester bore, on a blue field, three 
golden garbs; contemporaneously with him, 
Gilbert de Seagrave bore three silver garbs, on a 
black field. Sir John Comyn, who lived in the 
reign of Edward II., sustained, amongst his 
other heraldic items, three red garbs. Later, Sir 
Christopher Hatton, who was Chancellor in the 
reign of Elizabeth, bore a chevron between three 
golden garbs on an azure field. 

Several interesting examples of the use of 
wheat is to be found in Continental Heraldry. 
Ripe corn was adopted as a device, with the 
motto, " It gives back more than it receives," a 
sentiment derived from H-esiod, showing we 
should imitate the corn, which renders more 
fruit than the seed sown. Pietro Francesco 
Tortoli bore as his ensign a spike of corn, ripe 
and bending, with the legend, " I bend down 
because I am full," a phrase which might strike 
the frivolous as funny ! But the true interpreta- 
tion is, " The modesty of true learning." Shake- 
speare here, as usual, has something to say appro- 
priate to our immediate theme. In Henry Vl.^ 
Part ii.y Act i, Sc. 2, we find : 


" Why droops my Lord, like over-ripen'd corn 
Hanging the head at Ceres plenteous load?" 

The Count of Hooghstraten (ob. 1 540) had the 
device of a hand holding a sheaf of corn and 
sowing the grain, with the very sensible motto, 
to be emphasised in these times, " The hand 
makes the work." But the Count was as much 
a warrior as he was an agriculturist, as witness 
another device of his, a grenade exploding in 
water, with the legend, " The greater its cold- 
ness, the sharper the heat." We have already 
referred to the brave but vain and false Alfonso 
d'Avalos, Marquis del Vasto, and briefly indi- 
cated his troubles. When Charles V. made him 
Captain-General, after the death of Antonio de 
Leyva, he took for device a sheaf of ripe corn 
with the motto, " They finish, and, in the like 
manner, renew their labours," meaninp^, that as 
after the grain is harvested, we must again sow 
and harvest, so his labours in the cause of his 
master should never cease, and as soon as he 
should finish one great exploit he would begin 
another. This device was the more appro- 
priate, inasmuch as a bundle of ears of corn was 
the impress worn in battle by his great grand- 
father, Don Rodrigo d'Avalos, Grand Constable 
of Castile. 

The celebrated historian, Phillippe de 
Comines (ob. 1505), took for his device a wheat 
sheaf, with the motto, " Whoso does not labour, 


will not eat." This is a paraphrase of the words 
of the apostle, " If any would not work, neither 
should he eat." This device and motto is to be 
seen on the monument of Comines and his wife, 
in the Renaissance Court of the Louvre, at Paris. 
One other foreign example of the wheat sheaf, 
and we have done. Orazio Farnese, Duke of 
Castro (ob. 1553), married Diane, daughter of 
Henry II.; who afterwards espoused Francois, 
eldest son of the Constable Montmorency, 
whom she saved from the massacre of 
St. Bartholomew. Diane died when above eighty 
years of age, having seen seven Kings upon the 
throne of France! Orazio had for his device 
four sheaves of unripe wheat, with the legend, 
" They will grow yellow," i.e., they will ripen, 
meaning that the youth of a prince should aim 
at some honourable or useful maturity. 

Something must be said in approbation of 
foreign Heraldry. Heraldry itself is a mystical 
language, but if made too mystic, it conveys 
nothing. English Heraldry is a tough nut to 
crack. We know every charge employed has 
some inner meaning, but more often than not it 
is difficult to discern it. On the other hand, Con- 
tinental Heraldry, while wrapped up in artistic 
forms and symbols, does inform the historian 
and the student what was the intention of the 
designers to memorialize, perpetuate, and teach. 
This observation is made, because whenever this 
writer tries to elucidate the motives for the 


adoption of peculiar symbols by British 
families, except in rare cases, he is absolutely 
baffled. Take the arms of Clifford for instance, 
chequy, argent^ and azure. We assume that 
something or other must have prompted the 
selection of this ancient device, which originally 
may have had to do with some mediaeval 
exchequer bills, but how are we to know or find 
out? One might just as well erect and endow 
a chapel-of-ease for the spiritual welfare of the 
inhabitants of Clapham Common up in the 
Orkneys! But this is a digression. 

Ceres, as we have seen, was represented by 
a garland of wheat. The corn we have dealt 
with; now we must regard the garland. In 
Heraldry, a garland is called a chaplet^ which 
is really the same thing, the canting arms of 
the family of Garland being GuleSy three 
chaplets argent. A chaplet, when not otherwise 
described, is a garland of leaves with four flowers 
amongst them, at equal distances. It is to be 
distinguished from the wreath^ and though 
usually composed of leaves^ will be found 
blazoned of various tinctures. In the time of 
Edward II., Sir Ralph Fitzwilliam bore, amongst 
his other trophies, three scarlet chaplets. Duke, 
Jodrelly of Stafford, and Dyrward all bear three 
chaplets differently disposed and tinctured. It is 
more usual, however, to designate the material 
of which the chaplet is composed. It may be of 
roses, and this, perhaps, is most frequent, or of 


flowers generally; or it may be of leaves^ and 
often or laurel leaves. In the latter case it is 
termed a crown triumphant. Here are a few 
examples. In a Roll, temp. Edward III., Mon- 
sieur William Plaice bore, amongst other things, 
three chaplets, with roses at equal distance; and 
so did Monsieur de Hilton de Haderness. 
Chaplets of roses are also borne by the families 
of Saxton^ Dean, Faulder^ Lascelles^ and others. 
Emmanuel College, Cambridge, has a chaplet 
of laurel; so have the families of Holme ^ Con- 
queror^ Pellew^ Keate^ Nightingale. Rarer in- 
stances occur of chaplets of holly^ hazel^ 
brambles y while the single instance of the chaplet 
of rue is a name sometimes given to the crown 
of rue, which occurs in the arms given by 
Frederick of Barbarossa to the Duke of Saxony. 
Nicholas Bubbewyth, who was Bishop of Salis- 
bury, Bath and Wells, from 1408 to 1424, had 
on his arms three chaplets of holly; and Peer^ of 
Devon, affords an instance of three chaplets of 
hazel. When the material is oak^ the device is 
often blazoned as a wreath, and there is especially 
a " wreath of oak acorned," which bears the 
name of the " Civic Wreath," or the " Civic 
Crown." It is supposed to represent the 
Roman crown conferred upon public benefactors, 
especially upon those who had saved the life of 
a citizen. The leaves should be tied together 
with a ribbon; but this is getting on to the subject 
of crowns and coronets, which are separately 

ARMORIaL instances ioi 

dealt with elsewhere. The term garland^ as well 
as wreath^ is used sometimes instead of 
chaplet. CereSy the goddess of seed and harvest, 
has, indeed, given us an armorial excursion. We 
will conclude her suggestions with a description 
of the wreath. 

The wreathy technically speaking, is the twisted 
band, composed of two strips of gold or silver 
lace and silk, by which the crest is joined to the 
helmet; though some wreaths of the fifteenth 
century were of four tinctures. It is sometimes, 
but improperly, called a roll; at others, a torse. 
It was perhaps copied by the Crusaders from the 
wreathed turbans of the Saracens. The first 
noticed is that of Sir John de Narsich, 1384. 
Wreaths should always show an equal number 
of divisions — now restricted to six — which are 
usually tinctured with the principal metal, and 
colour of the arms alternately. Every crest 
is understood to be placed upon a wreath, unless 
a chapeau or some coronet be expressly men- 
tioned. But WTeaths also sometimes occur as 
charges, e.g., we find a circular wreath. This is 
meant for the same object, but viewed from a 
different standpoint. Jocelyn, of Essex, gives 
us an instance. The family display a circular 
wreath of black and silver, with four hawk's 
bells joined thereto. Wreathed is not an unusual 
term. It means a charge encircled with a wreath. 
Savages are frequently wreathed about the 
temples and loins with ivy, etc. Moorr, or Mortf, 



Fig. II. 

has for its crest a 
Moor's head, with a 
gold and sable wreath 
around it. Oare^ of 
Sussex, has a bend 
wreathed blue and 
gold, and there are 
other instances to be 


The Club — The Lotus — The Keys 

After all, though an original, it might prove to 
be a useful method in explaining, as we set out to 
do, our subject by linking up, as it were, classic, 
ancient, and historical devices with their armorial 
equivalents. The field of armorial illustration 
is a vast one, and by adopting this novel system, 
it deprives the subject of its frightful techni- 
calities, and invests it with greater interest, which 
the author regards as one of his aims. ]n justi- 
fication, it must be allowed and remembered that 
almost all the signs and symbols employed by 
the ancients are employed to-day, and that in 
them the art-science of Heraldry discovers and 
recognises its forerunners. The intention was 
the same, the instinct was the same, the artistic 
expression was the same; all that is different is 
the period, the nation, and the tem- 
perament. In spite of its difficulties. Heraldry 
is supremely human, supremely aspirative. It 
looks up, not down. Given a cause or a faction, 
whatever its rights or wrongs may be, whatever 
its methods, evil, contemptible, or otherwise, at 
the back of it, as there is at the bottom of every 
n 103 


man's heart, was a striving after the lofty. 
Vanity^ Ambition^ Treachery^ Bloodshed^ Cor- 
ruption, Avarice, and the rest of the vices are 
readily discerned. Heraldry itself commemo- 
rates them. They are part of the history of 
Heraldry; but note — a part only. The other 
side discloses the greatest courage; ambition, 
without reward; pride in purity; the rescue of 
the destitute; mercy to the sinner; pity for the 
weak; real friendship, absolute unselfishness, 
and, above all, in heraldic language, a white 
shield. It is good to remember that a few — a 
rare few — actually do realise what Heraldry 
means. It is — or was — the exaltation of all that 
is noble in man; it expresses a constant striving 
on his part to go above, and not below him- 
self. This diversion has taken us out of our 
course a little bit, but an old student of Heraldry 
might be pardoned. To retire upon our base. 
If we attempted to give a Glossary of Heraldry, 
nobody would be interested, and everybody 
would be bored, and thus we should defeat our 
purpose. So we will return to our previous 
method, with this observation, that to Art 
Heraldry gave a tonic, and to poetry an impulse. 
Hercules, with his club, gives us a fresh 
example. He was, of course, as everyone 
knows, son of Jupiter and Alcmen6, in classic 
mythology, and was the figure and pillar of 
strength, performing twelve labours for his 
brother, Eurystethcus, Hercules himself occurs 


on one English coat of arms, and on one only, 
so far as has been observed. He is represented 
as holding a quadrant, and distinguishes the 
Scottish family of Oswald. The arms display 
Hercules wreathed about the head and middle 
with laurel leaves, holding in the dexter hand a 
quadrant, therewith looking towards a star 
in the dexter chief, and in the sinister hand 
holding his famom club. In Heraldry, the club 
becomes a staff, and appears more a symbol 
of authority than of force, although in several 
instances it retains its literal significance. With 
the staff are grouped examples of the club and 
also of the truncheon, the first being usually 
held by a savage or woodman, and is not uncom- 
monly held by such when appearing as sup- 
porters. In the arms of Gilham, we find a 
savage holding a club over the shoulders; in 
those of Barstotty three spiked clubs; Stevensorty 
amongst other insignia displays three trun- 
cheons; Harbottle, likewise, three clubs. We 
shall have to deal with the staff and the mace in 
another connection. Naturally, the Latins pro- 
vide entertaining illuminations of Hercules and 
his club. The Academy of Elevati of Ferrara 
bore Hercules, with Antaeus, as its insignia, 
in conjunction with the motto, " Earth conquers 
us, yet gives us Heaven "; in Scriptural lan- 
guage, " Our light affliction worketh for us a far 
more exceeding weight of glory." 

The Italians were certainly remarkabU for the 


aptness of their legends, as well as for the devices 
which symbolized their intentions and circum- 

The design employed by Pietro Gonzaga, 
Cardinal of Mantua, was Hercules destroying 
the Lernean hydra, with the motto, " Yield not 
to misfortunes, but advance to meet them all 
the more bravely." The Latin rendering of the 
legend is from Virgil, and in Dryden's transla- 
tion it reads : 

" Be thou secure of soul, unbent by woes, 
The more thy fortune frowns, the more 

The Cardinal contributed to the release of 
Pope Clement VIL, for which he was rewarded 
by the hat of the Cardinalate. Louis XIIL of 
France often bore two figures of Hercules, and 
sometimes the club of Hercules only, with the 
motto, "The monsters shall make acquaintance 
with this," the monsters alluded to being heresy 
and rebellion. When Louis XIIL was born 
there had not been a Dauphin since Francis II. — 
eighty-four years, and it is interesting to note 
that at his birth the province of Dauphiny 
sent a deputation to Fontainebleau, headed by 
the Archbishop of Vienne, to recognise the 
infant as their Sovereign, and made him a 
present of an entire service of richly-chased 
plate, with various figures of dolphins, estimated 
at 1 2,000 crowns. The Infiammati Academy of 


Padua proclaimed as it impress Hercules upon 
the funeral pile on Mount CEta, with the legend, 
" The mortal burned, to heaven will go the 
eternal." " Then shall the dust return to the 
earth as it was, and the spirit shall return unto 
God, who gave it" [Eccles. xii., 7). The same 
device was employed, with the same expression, 
by Leone Orsini, Bishop of Frejus, and with this 
instance Hercules leaves the armorial pageant. 
Mercury with his caduceus has also passed into 
the same splendid procession. The god of 
Commerce and Gain and herald of the gods was 
son of Jupiter and Maia. As a figure, he is not 
represented in English Heraldry, but when the 
foolish distinctions of planets and jewels were 
affected for blazoning the tinctures of royal and 
noble coats-of-arms his name was regarded as 
the equivalent of pur pure. The rod of Mer- 
cury, with wings attached and two snakes round 
it, is chiefly used as a crest; but the arms of 
Barrow (Bath) display the caduceus amongst its 
other features. King Henry Vll. — not our own 
glorious monarch of that designation and 
numeral, but of Luxemburg (13 14) — assumed 
as his device two hands issuing out of clouds, 
holding a caduceus surmounted by a crown, 
accompanied by the legend, " With feith and 

In Egyptian mythology, /^p«, the sacred bull 
of Memphis, is figurative of Osiris ; some- 
times the latter is symbolized by th© lotus, 


the water lily of the Nile, the emblem of 
Creation. The bull^ in its varied aspects, has 
already passed under review, and as a specific 
flower the lotus does not occur in English 
arms. The lily itself, one of the most poetic 
and beautiful charges in Heraldry, will receive 
ample treatment when it comes in another con- 
nection. Not even excepting the rose, it is the 
sweetest flower both in nature and symbolism — 
and perhaps the most historic. As a specific 
bloom, the lotus flower does figure in foreign 
Heraldry. The device of the lotus flower in 
a river with the sun shining upon it, was 
assumed by Ferdinand Caraja, Marquis of Santo 
Lucito, with the motto, " Such is the divine light 
to me." The Marquis was brought up in the 
Court of Charles V., and as the lotus, according 
to Pliny and Thcophrastus, rises with the sun, 
and when that luminary attains the meridian, 
the lotus, which has been gradually rising on its 
stem, is quite upright, and again gradually 
droops as the sun sets, so in like manner Caraja 
followed in the path of his master, under whose 
favour he lived. Pliny says : 

" It is said, moreover, as touching the Egyp- 
tian lotus, that in Euphrates the very head of 
the stalkc, together wi<-h the flower, used in the 
evening to be plunged and drowned under the 
water until midnight, and so deep as to settle 
toward the bottom, that a man with his hand 
cannot reach thereto, nor find any part of it; 


but after that time, it beginneth to rise by little 
and little, and by the sun-rising appeareth above 
the water, and opcnefh the flower, and still 
mounteth higher and higher a good height from 
the water." Ferdinand himself composed a 
beautiful sonnet on the lotus; and the property 
of the flower is also noted by Dante. In Gary's 
translation we read . 

*' Like flow'rs which shrinking from the chilly 

Droop and shut up; but with fair morning's 

Rise on their stems, all open and upright." 

In Lalla Rookhy Moore also regards it : 

" Those virgin lilies all the night 

Bathing their beauties in the lake, 
That they may rise more fresh and bright, 
When their beloved sun's awake." 

Poetry wedded to Heraldry if you like! But 
there was never any divorce between them; let's 
hope there never will be. There are two other 
legends which attend the blazon of the lotus : 
" While you look back I am raised up "; " By 
thee I sink, and am sunk," but only an Italian 
could express his ideas so beautifully. Cardinal 
Ludovko Mandruccio, nephew of Cristofero 
(ob. 1600) bore the lotus as his device, with the 
expressive motto, " With the sun shining I come 


out.*' Here the sentiment is not quite so good. 

Is'tSy the widow of Osiris, to whom the cow 
was sacred, was, as previously indicated, some- 
times represented by certain flower-buds, re- 
garded by the ancient Egyptians as symbolical 
of the eternal bloom of the inhabitants of Heaven. 
The cow has already passed across our stage; 
flowers in their generic and specific senses find 
treatment elsewhere. Here we take leave for 
the moment of classic examples and pagan sug- 
gestions, and we think all will agree that, apart 
from their incorporation with Heraldry, and 
distinct from Christian doctrine and teaching, 
they convey lessons, inculcate upward striving, 
and signify a " Table of the Law " not incon- 
sistent with our own; indeed, without them, 
whilst we should, it is presumed, have a Faith, 
we should have had no History, Poetry, Art, 
Heraldry, nor Architecture. This is sweeping, 
but it is undeniable. 

Following the track we set ourselves to pursue, 
and with the same intention, we now enter into 
a domain more familiar to us. The gods have 
passed. Groping in darkness, we find at last the 
Living God, through his Son, Jesus Christ, our 
Redeemer. If we have said too much in adula- 
tion of the classic influence upon Heraldry, there 
was no desire to compare it with the Christian 
influence, to the disparagement of the latter. 
Very far from it. All Heraldry not only ex- 
presses high ideals, but also testifies to, and 


breathes the spirit of Christianity. It was 
invented by Christianity, pagan forms were 
revived, but they were given a different meaning, 
whilst, at the same time, they were employed to 
express the fundamental virtues of all times, 
creeds, and nations. After the first year of Our 
Lord, the old wine was poured into fresh bottles, 
but it was the old wine, none the less. Classic 
symbolism and metaphor and thought, as already 
indicated, were the precursors of Armorial Bear- 
ings, and in the realm of Heraldry they bear the 
same relation to it as the Old Testament does to 
the New. 

In painting and sculpture, from the earliest 
days of Christianity, signs and symbols accom- 
panied the figures of the Apostles. These 
symbols have already been catalogued ; they open 
up a tremendous field, and disclose an equally 
powerful influence on Religion, Heraldry, Art, 
Poetry, and History. Of course, first in the 
in the list comes St. Peter, the Prince of the 
Apostles, with the keys of the Kingdom of 
Heaven. That almighty charge to Peter, grand 
in its language, awful in its weight, the only link 
between God and sinner, needs no comment here 
except that, historically speaking, a religious 
system was founded on it which has seen empires 
rise and fall; caused empires to rise and fall; and 
yet, after 2,000 years of bloodshed, turmoil, 
strife, heresy, corruption, and other innumerable 
horrors, that religious system is stronger, more 


potent, more youthful, more promising 
than any other institution in the world. 
Macaulay realised all this a long time ago, when 
he prophesied the visit of that famous New 
Zealander. As we write. Cardinal Vannutelli 
arrived in Montreal, where His Eminence was 
received by an immense concourse of people. 
The Mayor read an address containing the fol- 
lowing significant passages : — 

" From the Rome of the Old World you 
come to the Rome of the New World, for such 
has this city of churches been happily desig- 
nated. The same invincible arm which holds on 
high the torch of faith upon the dome of the 
Vatican illumines us across the sea, and beckons 
us ever onward in the unfailing light of the 
infallible Church. The same Holy Spirit which 
inspired the crowning of all art with the Dome 
of St. Peter's inflamed the souls of those who, 
with bleeding hands, carried the rough stones 
with which to raise the first temple to the Most 
High on the wild slopes of Ville Marie." 
Canada, our chief and greatest dominion, thus 
speaks, two thousand years after the appointment 
of Peter to look after the care of souls. It would 
be impossible, after this, to deny the perpetual 
youth of the Roman method. But, then, Christ 
said, " Behold, I will be with thee all days, even 
unto the consummation of the world." Although 
lengthy, this digression is necessary before one 
can reach a proper appreciation of the keys of St. 


Peter as they figure in Heraldry. Their origin 
we have indicated. In British armorials, the 
key is a very common bearing in the insignia of 
Sees and religious houses, especially such as 
are under the patronage of St. Peter. In other 
arms they are supposed to denote office in the 
State. Keys borne singly are usually in pale, 
and as two keys can be placed in a variety of 
ways, the particular way must be expressed. 
More frequently the two are borne in saltire^ 
but they may be addorsed. They are also inter- 
laced in the bows, or rings. Amongst the Sees 
employing the keys in one way or another are 
Gloucester^ Peterborough^ Cashel^ Down, Connor 
and Dromore, Exeter, 
Saint Asaph, York, and 
Winchester. In all 
these cases the emblem 
is used in its ecclesias- 
tical sense. 

In its secular sense 

leyn bears two crossed vjLOvJCjl»oiliir\ 
keys; Kay, of Durham ^^^- ^^' 

and also of Scotland, amongst other detail, 
has a Griffin's head, holding a key in its beak; 
Gibson, of Scotland, is always distinguished 
in its arms by three keys in pale. Roger 
Keys was granted by Henry VI., in 1449, a 
shield, an achievement which incorporated three 
golden keys; and there arc several other families 


who bear keys in their arms, such as Key^ 
Shelleton^ Shillcorne, and so forth. To return to 
the ecclesiastical use of the symbol in question. 
The arms of the Abbey of Abbotsbury, in 
Dorset, contained three pairs of keys. Mathew 
Parker, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1539-75, 
threw off the Papal yoke, but he retained the 
ancient insignia. He bore a chevron between 
three keys. The fourteenth-century Bishop of 
Ely (1303-10) employed three keys, enfiled with 
as many crowns; and Exeter College still uses the 
arms of its founder. Bishop Stapledon (13 14) of 
that See, which consisted of two bends nebulae 
within a bordure gules, charged with twelve pairs 
of keys addorsed and interlaced on rings. 
The Benedictine Priory of Holland, co. Lan- 
caster, bore, amongst other heraldic detail, three 
golden keys. Keys also occur in the arms of 
the following abbeys and religious houses : Bathy 
Bourne y Bromere^ Chert sey^ Ely^ Hyde, Plym- 
tofi, Thurgarton; but there are many others. Of 
cities and towns employing the same symbol are 
Montgomery^ Peterborough, Salisbury, Saint 
Asaph, Bath, Guildford, and Totnes. The 
Deaneries of Saint Asaph, Wells, and York also 
bear the key, with its ancient meaning and signi- 

Papal Heraldry, consisting of the two keys, 
one of gold and one of iron — the first to open the 
gate ot Heaven, and the second to close it irre- 
vocably — would need a volume of itself to treat 


properly, and so we will conclude with an Italian 
instance which has no Papal significance. On 
the death of his father, the Marquis Pescara left 
Milan and settled at Pavia, where he established 
an academy styled " Delle Chiave," composed 
entirely of noble and illustrious persons, who 
wore a golden key suspended round the neck, 
and also bore the same impress, with the legend, 
" It is shut and opened to the free." This was 
taken from Chap, iii., verse 7, of Revelations, 
" He that hath the key of David, that openeth 
and no man shutteth, and shutteth and no man 

We get plenty of gates in Heraldry, but no 
doors. Naturally, St. Paul follows St. Peter. 
He was put to death, as we all know, by the 
sword,and the sword ever since has emblematized 
him. St. Paul, as we have indicated, is the 
the special Saint of London, and in one section 
of the City arms, of world-wide renown, stands 
erect the weapon which should ever keep his 
memory green. But we have reached the limits 
of the present chapter, in one way unfortunately, 
since the division between paganism and Chris- 
tianity is wide; on the other hand, happily, 
because it has served to link up and connect the 
Classic and the True. 


The Sword — ^The Chalice — The Knife. 

St. Paul, as we all should know, unless we 
have forgotten our early teaching, was the 
apostle or the Gentiles. He was born at Tarsus, 
and called Saul until his conversion. He wrote 
his grand Epistles to the Romans, and was prob- 
ably martyred in Rome about a.d. 66. The 
instrument of his death was a sword, and whilst 
this implement will always symbolize him, it 
introduces us also to the heraldic sword, which 
bears no relation to him. The usual form is a 
long, straight blade, with a cross handle, and it 
is borne in a variety of ways, so that its position 
should be distinctly stated. As we have already 
said, the sword in the insignia of the City of 
London is sometimes called the sword of St. 
Paul, that apostle being patron of the City. A 
sword is often represented piercing an animal, or 
a human heart. The hilt and pommel are also 
frequently named, as of a different tincture 
from the sword itself. To the Cutlers' 
Company, which was incorporated in 141 7, a 
grant of arms was made in 1476. This achieve- 
ment shows three pairs of swords crosswise, two 
pairs in chief, and one m base. 


Naturally, in mediaeval times, as in later ones, 
the art and craft of cutlery, as concerned defen- 
sive and defiant purposes, was of the highest 
importance. For weal or woe, our attention 
is now, in our days, fixed upon armaments. It 
is most unlikely that the sword or cutlass will 
ever be employed again, although in the past it 
figured hugely. In the current year of Our 
Lord, the sword is as extinct as the Dodo. But 
to re-hark to the past. 

Numerous armorial houses bear swords in 
their arms. Smallbrook displays a black sword 
on a gold field; Dymock, on a black field, a silver 
sword; Norton, three on a blue ground, one in 
pale, point upwards, surmounted by the other 
two in saltire with their points downward. In 
one case the sword is used as a rebus of the name; 
the family of Sword displays a man's head 
couped at the shoulders, between three swords — 
rather a sanguinary notion. Among other houses 
which have assumed the sword as a part of their 
insignia, may be cited those of Demsey, Menzies, 
Braddyllj Spalding, Symonston, Dick, Egerton, 
Parsons, Proctor; but the list is almost as endless 
as it is versatile. One of the more interesting 
of these delineations is that of Egerton, an Irish 
family. Its story is obscure, but its punctuation 
is suggestive. On a red field, a fesse between 
three silver pheons are described, and on a canton 
a black gauntlet, holding a broken sword erect, 
cmbrued with blood! This must symbolize n 


tragic story; but the Celts were not as communi- 
cative as the Latins, and it is a matter of conjec- 
ture whether, or not, the Egertons can explain 
or interpret this significant piece of blazonry. 
But we have not finished with the sword yet. 
There are different kinds of swords mentioned 
in blazonry; there is the arming swordy the 
sword of State; the Irish swordy the High- 
lander's claymorey etc. : 

" The Highlander, whose red claymore, 
The battle turned on Maida's shore." 
Scotty Marmiotty Intro, to Canto VI. 

Other examples are also found under the name 
of sabre. An arming sword was also a feature 
of Marmion's arms; but we will leave him until 
we consider the influence of Heraldry upon the 
poetical works of Scott. In the time of Henry 
VIII., GelUbrandy of co. Kent, bore two swords 
in their scabbards in saltire, and it may be shown 
that brand is a word for sword. Venturing 
abroad, we discover the sword put to numerous 
armorial uses. Disregarding chronology, we 
take instances as we find them. The first instance 
we discover is that of Charles Emmanuel, Duke 
of Savoy (ob. 1630), styled " the Great." His 
career was as varied as his devices. His history 
would take too long to recount, but he adopted 
the scheme of a mailed arm — we have been 
taught something of the mailed fist — holdings 
a sword, with this distich of Lucan : " Whoso 


denies justice, give everything to him who holds 
the arms." King John of Portugal (ob. 1384), 
who married Philippa, daughter of " time- 
honoured Lancaster," old John of Gaunt, assumed 
as his device a sword cleaving a rock, with the 
sensible and logical legend, " It sharpens that 
it may penetrate." When made Constable of 
France, Anne de Montmorenci, godson of 
Queen Anne of Brittany, and fifth Constable of 
his name, premier Baron, and Grand Master of 
France, Knight of the Garter and St. Michael, 
assumed as his insignia an armed hand issuing 
out of a cloud, with a naked sword, the fleur-de- 
lis scabbard and belt of the Constable hanging 
beneath. This personality figures very largely 
in French history, and is well worth regarding 
from many standpoints. 

France supplies some further examples of the 
use of the sword. Charles II, , Cardinal de 
Bourbon (ob. 1488), brother ot John II. and of 
Pierre de Beaujeu, and of Margaret, the mother 
of Louis de Savoie, was made Archbishop at the 
age of nine. SextCis IV., made him Cardinal. 
On the death of his brother John, he took the 
title of Duke of Bourbon, under the name of 
Charles II., and adopted as his ensign a flaming 
sword, representing the sword of the Church 
and " the sword of the Spirit, which is the Sword 
of God." His motto was more presumptuous 
than necessary. It was, " I, the author of 
daring." The celebrated Constable Bourbon 


assumed the device of a constable's sword inter- 
laced with a scroll, upon which was inscribed, 
" It will penetrate," a motto which revealed at 
once his pride and his high pretensions. 

To conclude references to the sword, we intro- 
duce an Italian exemplar. It is that of Virginio 
Orsini, Prince of Bracciano (ob. 1497). From 
his riches, the number of his followers, and hi' 
noble house, he was regarded as one of the first 
princes of Italy. He was Grand Constable of 
Naples and General to Ferdinand and Alfonso 
II. His history is, hke most of those of his 
time, as interesting as it is varied. As a member 
of the Furfurano Academy, whose emblem was 
a corn-mill, he adopted a sword in a heap of 
bran, meaning that as the sword in time of 
peace is laid in bran to keep it from rusting, so 
he occupied his repose from war in literary 

St. Andrew, the patron of Scotland, now con- 
fronts us. St. Peter, so that he should not 
imitate, or try to imitate, his Lord and Master, 
preferred to be crucified with his head down- 
wards. His brother apostle, St. Andrew, elected, 
if he had a choice or election, to be crucified 
saltire-wise, that is to say, on a cross made in 
the form of the letter X. St. Andrew's particular 
association with Scotland is by no means obvious, 
but the instrument of his martyrdom is the proud 
ensign of that country, and occupies an equally 
distinguished position in what we understand as 


the Union Jack. The mere mention of the Cross 
opens up a rich vein in Heraldry; but, for the 
nonce, we will adhere, as closely as may be, to 
the saltire cross of St. Andrew in particular. 

This cross figures largely in Heraldry, as 
akeady mentioned; it constitutes one of the 
honourable ordinaries. It represents the cross 
whereon St. Andrew was supposed to have been 
crucified, and the standard, or banner, of St. 
Andrew is one bearing the cross, in silver, on a 
field of azure. The plain saltire is nothing but 
a cross placed in a different position, and what- 
ever was the origin of the one as a device upon 
a shield, was probably also the origin of the 
other. Almost all the forms incident to the 
cross are likewise applicable to the saltire. 

It is capable of infinite treatment. Sometimes 
it is found engrailed ; at times the arms terminate 
in leopards' heads. In a roll of Edward II., 
twenty-eight examples occur, eighteen of which 
are engrailed. The Cross of St. Julian is a saltire 
crossed, or as otherwise described, a cross crosslet 
placed saltire-wise. 

But we are only immediately concerned with 
that of St. Andrew. Historic examples of its 
employment are numerous and informative. 
Robert the Bruce bore a red saltire upon a golden 
field. Contemporaneously (tern. Henry III.), 
Foulke de Eschardeston distinguished his coat 
with a silver saltire upon a red field. In the time 
of Edward II., ,Sir Randolf de Nevyle bore a 


silver saltire upon a field of blood, as did his 
descendant, Ralph de Nevile, in the time of 
Edward IIL; but ancient and modern examples 
would exhaust a volume. A saltire forms part 
of the arms of the venerable See of Rochester. 
The grand thirteenth-century Seal of the City 
not only commemorates St. Andrew, but gives 
one of the finest illustrations of mediaeval seal 
engraving. Rochester Cathedral is, of course, 
dedicated to St. Andrew. The cross of this 
Apostle also figures, naturally, in the achieve- 
ment of the Lyon King-of-Arms, Scotland 
being within his jurisdiction. There is a silver 
saltire ascribed to Gerard, Bishop of Hereford, 
1096, translated to York, iioo, but it is not 
worthy of credence. But Bishop Wolton, of 
Exeter (1579-94), provides us with a singular 
example in this association. He exhibited a lion 
rampant supporting a saltire engrailed. 

St. James, the great apostle, did some fine 
missionary work. He is represented in Christian 
Art by a pilgrim's staff. In Heraldry, his staff 
plays no inconsiderable part. The pilgrim's staff, 
or palmefs staffs is not infrequently figured, as 
will be seen later; it bears a hook something like 
a shepherd's hook, but inverted, and must be dis- 
criminated from the pike-staff — a very different 
implement. The pilgrim's staff, as a charge, 
appeared in the achievement of the old 
Cistercian Abbey of Buckland, Devon, long 
since destroyed, and likewise long forgotten. 


But St. James is recalled in another shape, 
that of the escallop. The escallop is the 
badge of a pilgrim, and also a symbol of the 
Apostle St. James the Great, who is generally 
drawn in the garb of a pilgrim. As it is 
found in ancient Heraldry as early as Henry 
III.'s time, it was probably suggested by the 
Eastern pilgrimages. It is borne in various 
ways, often surmounting an ordinary or other 
charge, especially a cross, chief, or bordure. It 
is clear that the old French term, coquille, from 
which we derive our modern cockle shell, is the 
same, though some heralds pretend that when this 
is used the shell should have the edge upwards. 
The shell is always represented with the outside 
of the valve towards the spectators, but in French 
arms the interior is sometimes shown, and then 
the term vannet is used. To illustrate the 
employment in British armorials of the escallop 
is not very difficult. We will take the more 
ancient, and, therefore, the more authoritative, 
first. In the reign of Henry III., Herbert de 
Chamberleyne bore three golden escallops on a 
red field; his contemporary, if not his colleague, 
Ralph Bigot, displayed on a golden field, a red 
cross charged with three silver escallops; whereas 
Waren de Monchensy, of the same age, exhibited 
the same number, although in a different way. 
Further on, whilst Edward II. swayed the sceptre 
Sir Thomas de Sein Lory, we discover, bore 
three of these cockle shells, as did those valiant 


knights, St. Loe, Halton^ Howland^a.nd Ingham^ 
in the reign of Edward IIL The Abbey of 
Reading, which was under the patronage of St. 
James, displayed three golden escallops on an 
azure field, and the Augustinian Abbey of the 
same titular apostle, in Northampton, an escallop, 
per pale argent and gules. The Gloucester- 
shire house of Prelate bears a red escallop upon a 
silver escutcheon, and simple and pure it looks. 
Then Russell, Duke of Bedford, displays on his 

. fine coat, a lion 
rampant of a 
bloody red, and 
on a chief sable 
three silver escal- 
lops. There are 
other achieve- 
ments in which 
this cockle shell 
appears, such as 
those of Hollandy 
Spencer, and others. 

St. John the Evangelist is symbolised by a 
chalice, with a serpent issuing from it. The son 
of Zebedee, the best-beloved of Christ, he is 
reputed to have died at Ephesus, nearly a century 
after the Resurrection. A beautiful legend 
accounts for the association of the subtle 
serpent with the sacred goblet. When St. 
John was doing " this in commemoration of 
Me," some evil spirit put poison in the 





chalice, and as St. John was about to partake, 
the reptile uprose. The serpent in Heraldry 
we have already attended to, so we will 
dismiss him in this connection with the parting 
remark that he is always up to some mischief 
or other. He started his game and showed 
his hand in the first scene ever presented on 
any stage — that of the Garden of Eden. To 
be more serious, or less serious, just as the reader 
regards it, we will look at the heraldic side of the 
present theme. 

Evangelistic symbols — there are four of them 
— as we have already explained, base their origin 
in Revelations. They figure a great deal in 
Heraldry, but Revelations do not assist us much 
in our effort to understand and appreciate. For 
the moment, therefore, we will confine ourselves 
to the chalice, although we cannot forget that 
that used at the Last Supper was brought to 
Glastonbury by Joseph of Arimathea, and buried 
at the foot of the Mendip Hills, at which point 
perpetually issues a stream of sparkling water, 
considered to be drained from the most awful, 
the most tremendous, and yet the most soothing 
of vintages. Having drunk from it, the author 

In Heraldry, the charge is usually drawn from 
old examples, sometimes with an octagonal 
foot. It appears very seldom. Two instances 
only need be noted. The family of Vassall dis- 
play a golden chalice, with a sun illuminating it, 


— an estimable mark of family distinction. Two 
chalices, in fesse, of gold — foolishly described 
elsewhere as candlesticks — constitute the bear- 
ings of the house of Emerle. It does make one 
somewhat peevish, when heralds do not know 
the difference between a chalice and a candle- 
stick! Why the literal expression of the word 
chalice alone, apart from its sacrosanct associa- 
tions, is tense with poetry and beauty. We have 
seen a motor-car " reversed," but don't in 
Heaven's name, compel us to view three argent 
aeroplanes on a field vert, displayed between a 
chevron, gules — they either fall on the grass or 
kill their pilots, which amounts to the same 
thing. The last word in English Heraldry, as 
far as we know it — and we have looked into it 
somewhat — is that granted to Sir John Herschell, 
a telescope upon a tripod ! But this is a digres- 

In our order comes next, after SS. Peter, Paul, 
Andrew, James and John, St. Bartholomew, 
whose attribute, or symbol, is a knife. That 
knife draws attention to that horrible blunder, 
infamous in history, known as the " Massacre of 
St. Bartholomew," with which the exalted apostle 
could not possibly have had anything to do; 
lying in his tomb a thousand years and more 
beforehand. St. Bartholomew, as we all should 
know, was one of the twelve apostles, but why 
he should have such a bloodthirsty reputation as 
is attributed to him, the writer cannot explain. 


The massacre of the French Protestants occurred 
on the day or the eve of his festival, in 1572. 
Of course, it was all a mistake, or, as we should 
say now a diplomatic error; but, all the same, St. 
Bartholomew, one of the best of the apostles, and 
most peaceful of the twelve, goes down to pos- 
terity as a Nero. It is time someone attempted 
to clear his cliaracter. But we must return to 
our original theme, and St. Bartholomew must 
apologise to us for introducing the word knife. 
Knives are not infrequently borne in arms, but 
they have generally some precise designation. 
There is the shoemaker's knife, the pruning 
knife, and the shredding knife; but it is difficult 
to find good examples to show the correct draw- 
ing. In the insignia of Crowland Abbey, they 
are sometimes blazoned as St. Bartholomew's 
knives — a pre-massacre reflection upon the 
apostle's instincts. But we will follow the knife 
up in our next chapter. 


The Knife (cont'd) — The Staff — The Lance. 

St. Bartholomew having introduced us to the 
knife, we must advance with it. There is the 
plumber's knife, and the patten-maker's cutting 
knife, and the currier's paring knife ! Butchers' 
knives are borne by the foreign families of 
Kohler^ Krosigj and Wtnckel^ in Saxony; but no 
English bearings of the kind have been, so far, 
discovered. We will give a few illustrations of 
the use of the knife in armorial fancy. The 
family of Blood adopted, with a ruddy 
significance, a silver knife upon a field of 
red; that of Knyevette^ obviously with better 
intentions, since the device in this case was 
a mere rebus on their name, displayed 
three silver knives upon a blue field; that 
of Worsyche^ three similar charges on a 
red ground; and the family of Hackley three 
shoemakers' knives in red, on a silver field. 
Three shredding knives distinguish the Shrop- 
shire family of Ahhot; and a cutting knife, 
with a Marquess's coronet, comprises the arms 
of the Edinburgh Company of Cordwainers. 
The arms of the grand old Benedictine Abbey 


of Croyland, situated in the Lincolnshire Fens, 
now an absolute ruin (although the church 
still stands), thanks to Henry VIII. and those 
of his kidney — God rest their souls; we cannot 
forgive them! — were, briefly, an equally divided 
shield, with three knives in the first and fourth 
sections, three scourges in each of the others. 
Croyland Abbey was one of the more illustrious 
of our destroyed monastic centres. It was 
endowed with singular privileges, and ranked 
with the greatest of them in point of riches. 
The story of its origin is a beautiful one, but 
too lengthy to be narrated here. One of its most 
prized relics was the whip of St. Bartholomew, 
presented with the psalter of St. Guthlac, and 
other treasures, by Pega, the latter's sister. 
It is the scourge and knife of St. Bartholomew, 
which appeared in the arms of the Abbey. The 
whip has only been observed once in British 
Heraldry, namely, the arms of Swift^ of Scot- 
land, which comprises three whips of three lashes 
of silver, on a field of red. Only Continental 
usage of the scourge is to be discovered. Pope 
Pius III. bore a hand holding a scourge and a 
branch of laurel, with the motto, " Punishment 
and Reward." Pius II. had a hand holding 
Aaron's rod, with the legend, " It flowered un- 
hoped for," in allusion to his unexpected eleva- 
tion. St. Philip, another of the apostolic twelve, 
bore a staff, with a cross at the top. The cross 
receives considerable attention elsewhere, so here 


we will confine ourselves to the staff. The 
term is usually qualified by some word express- 
ing its special purpose or character, such as pil- 
grim's, or palmer's staff. 

This emblem, already briefly mentioned, was 
used as a device in a coat of arms at least as early 
as Edward IL's reign. The staff and the 
escallop were still the badges of the pilgrim, and 
hence it is but natural it should find its way into 
the shields of those who had visited the Holy 
Land. The usual form of representation is a 
pole with a hook attached to it with the point 
upwards, but in some examples the hook 
is wanting, and where this is the case it is 
scarcely distinguishable from a pastoral staff, 
as borne by some of the monasteries. Repre- 
sented under different forms, it is blazoned, 
as will also be seen, under different names, i.e.^ 
pilgrim^s crutch^ a crutch staff; but there is no 
reason to suppose that the different names can be 
correlated with different figures. The crutch^ 
perhaps, should be represented with the trans- 
verse piece on the top of the staff, like the letter 
" T," instead of across it. As evidenced by a 
roll of the time of Edward IL, three silver 
pilgrim's staves were borne by Sir John Bourdon. 
The Lincolnshire family of Palmer also exhibit 
three pilgrim's staves in their armorial achieve- 
ment. Three water-bougets of gold on a 
scarlet shield, with a pilgrim's staff in pale, com- 
posed the impress of the ancient Yorkshire 


Abbey of Kirkham, and the Priory of Sempring- 
ham, in Lincolnshire, displayed over its other 
heraldic insignia a pilgrim's crutch of gold. 
Several ancient families employed the same 
emblem as a charge in their arms. The Pil- 
grims and Hawkins might be indicated in addi- 
tion to the Palmers. Holgate, who was Bishop 
of Llandaff (1537) and Archbishop of York 
from 1545 to 1554, had his arms surmounted 
by a crutch-staff in bend azure. The Augus- 
tinian Priory at Newburgh, co. York, and the 
Gilbertine Abbey of Alvingham, co. Lincoln, 
contribute examples of monastic use of this 
interesting figure. Closely connected with the 
Pilgrim's staff was the Pilgrim's or palmer's 
scrip, called also pouch, or wallet. Here is an 
appropriate quotation from Sir Walter Raleigh : 

" Give me my scallop-shell of quiet. 
My staff of faith to walk upon; 
My scrip of joy, immortal diet; 
My bottle of salvation. 
My gown of glory (hope's true gage), 
And thus I'll make my pilgrimage." 

The wallet is sometimes pendent from the 
staff. The Tashorough family bears three 
palmer's staves with pouches hanging on them; 
that of Palmer incorporates three palmer's scrips. 
Wolston, of Devon, bears a bend between six 
pouches argent, and Wolston, of Cornwall, the 
same number, but tinctured sable. 


The pike-staff is generally drawn like a pil- 
grim's staff, but without the hook. Then there 
is the flag-staff and quarter-staff used by 
foresters. Next, the cross-staff. This is a general 
term for any instrument taking levels or alti- 
tudes. The mariner's cross-staff, now of course 
obsolete, was commonly called the fore-staff. 
One form of the cross is found amongst 
plumbers'' implements. These comprise five or 
six kinds, the last the cross-staff, which figures 
in the shield of the Company of Plumbers', 
which was incorporated in the year a.d. 1612, 
but the charge used in this regard has a scientific 
and not a religious or historical significance. 

The arms of the Lincolnshire family of 
Evington exhibit a blue field, with a chevron 
between three mariner's cross-staves in gold and 
five mullets. 

There is also the pastoral staffs or crosier, 
which does uphold its authoritative and 
doctrinal essence. It is derived from the 
Latin crocia^ a crook ; French, croc, not from 
crux^ or cross. This word is properly restricted 
to the crook of an Archbishop, or Bishop, or 
Abbot. The Archbishop, besides his crosier, 
made use also of a staff, surmounted by 
a cross, that of the Pope having a triple 
cross. That of the See of Canterbury is 
represented as surmounted by a cross for my. 
In actual examples, some few of which remain, 
the Archbishop's staff is found to be of various 



patterns, and highly ornamented. The stajf of 
/Archbishop Warham (ob. 1520), as shown by 
his tomb in the Cathedral, provides an excellent 
illustration of the staff, with a cross formy. It 
is borne of this form, but not so highly orna- 
mented as the ensigns of the Archiepiscopal Sees 
of Canterbury, Armagh, and Dublin. The 
crosier of a Bishop ends in a curve, resembling 
that of a shepherd's crook, from which there is 
every reason to believe it was derived, not- 
withstanding the opinion of some, that its 
origin is to be traced to the Uterus of the 
priesthood of pagan Rome. There are many 
existing specimens of episcopal staves which, 
while they all retain the general form of a crook 
differ very much 
in their enrich- 
ments. In Her- 
aldry, the simple 
form of the crosier 
has been generally 
adopted. The 
crosier, and staff 
surmounted by a 
cross, are, how- 
ever, often con- 
founded under the 
general term, pas- 
toral staffs and the 

'r.? is '"sS PETERBOROUGH 


equally for the crosier as for the staff with 
the cross. Here are a few entertaining and 
instructive examples. The arms of the See 
of Canterbury consist of a crosier in pale, 
ensigned with a cross formy, surmounted by 
a pall charged with four crosses formed 
fitchee. Henry DeanCy who was Bishop of 
Bangor in 1496, of Salisbury in 1500, and 
Archbishop of Canterbury from 1501 to 1530, 
bore as his achievement on a chevron between 
three Cornish choughs as many pastoral staves 
erect. He, happily for his soul, was not 
implicated in the " Great Betrayal." The Abbey 
of St. Agatha, of Richmond (Yorks.), displayed 
a crosier in its armorial insignia. Two crosiers 
are also to be viewed in the arms of the See of 
Argyll; and Bishop Stopford, of Hereford 
(1522-48), employed two pastoral staves cross- 
wise, crowned by a mitre. The Cistercian Abbey 
of Vale Royal, in Cheshire, also exhibited the 
crosier as a constituent of its heraldic decoration. 
Two lay illustrations occur in British Heraldry, 
the families of Church and M^Laurin using the 
Bishop's crosier and crook respectively. The 
pastoral staves of Abbots resembled those of 
Bishops, and were no doubt equally ornamented, 
especially when the Abbot was head of a Mitred 
Abbey. However, it seems there was a custom 
to attach a small pallium^ called the sudarium^ 
to the crosier of Abbots, to distinguish them 
from those of Bishops, though it was not 


generally adhered to. This seems to be repre- 
sented on the insignia of St. Benet's, Hulme. 
Examples are also found of Abbesses represented 
with a pastoral staff, as on the brass of Isabel 
Hervey, Abbess of Elstow, Bedfordshire, who 
died in 1524. Abbeys, Priories, etc., bearing 
crosiers, were innumerable — thirty, at least — 
and the beautiful figure also finds a prominent 
place in diocesan blazonry. 

Sometimes the kind of staff is implied, as in 
banner and staff. For example, the Paschal 
Lamb. ' Ordinarily, it may be noted in passing, 
the lamb is represented passant, with its face 
shown in profile; but when the Holy^ or Paschal 
Lamb is intended, the face should be guardanty 
or reguardant. This bearing varies considerably 
in different examples, particularly in the shape of 
the flag. The nimbus should be gold, with a 
red cross, the flag argent, cross and ends gules. 
The Holy Lamb is, however, not infrequently 
borne all of one colour. For pointed reasons, the 
family of Lamb bears the device of three paschal 
lambs. The achievement of the Honourable 
Society of the Middle Temple, as is well known, 
display on a silver shield, on a red cross, a golden 
paschal lamb carrying a silver banner charged 
with a golden cross. There are other highly 
interesting examples; but we are straying, as 
all who enter into the world of Heraldry are apt 
to do, from the immediate theme afforded us by 
St. Philip, namely, that of the staff. 


In the arms of Hawke, three flag-staves figure, 
and those of Longstaff contain three quarter- 
ttaves. The ancient Cistercian Abbey of Buck- 
land had a crook amongst its other insignia. 
The famous ragged staff of the Warwicks has 
received ample treatment. The staff-raguly 
occurs very frequently, and the term implies 
a branch of a tree with the twigs lopped, and 
resembling a club. It is generally drawn coupedy 
and then the term trunk ed is used. The 
families, amongst others, of Woodhouse, Alleriy 
Bowstocky Willishyy B.-irloWy Layland^ all employ 
in one way or another the staff-raguly. Merycky 
Bishop of Sodor and Man, 1575-99, bore, as his 
arms, sabhy on a chevron argent between three 
staves- ragulyy or, inflamed proper, a fleur-de-lis 
azurCy between two Cornish choughs. The 
shepherd's staff, or crook, is a long staff curved 
at the top, but less so than the crosier. Yet, 
after all, divested of its ecclesiastical pomp 
and circumstance, the crosier harks back to 
the crook of the " Shepherd of the whole 
flock," of which we are members. Two 
instances of the use of the shepherd's staff, or 
crook, may be cited from the realm of armorial 
illustration. The houses of Shepherd and 
Bennette both have adopted it. In the arms of 
the first we discover two shepherd's crooks, and 
the same number in those of the second. Some 
peculiar names occur, for instance, the Jacobus 
staffy possibly a shepherd's crook, but probably 


St. James's pilgrim staff, the crutch-staffs and 
the Jedburgh staff. The Patriarchal staff is 
surmounted by a double or patriarchal cross. 
John Thurlow was, in 1664, granted as a charge 
in his arms a Jacob's staff between two stars, but 
in Heraldry this may be regarded as a Puritanical 
eyesore. In Scotland, Burgh^ of Jedburgh, dis- 
play a Chevalier armed at all points, and mounted 
on a horse, grasping a kind of lance called the 
Jedburgh staff. This is obviously a common 
device, transplanted into Heraldry, drawn from 
a mediaeval seal, examples of which are uncount- 

The term staves is used in the sense of the 
handles of axes, but this direction, if followed, 
would saddle St. Philip with a responsibility he 
ought not to bear. As such, in Continental 
Heraldry, we have not, so far, discovered the 
employment of the staff or stave, nor of the 
crosier, although its frequent use, no doubt, can 
be descried by the student. 

The Paschal Lamb is scarcely appropriate to 
St. Philip, that is, in an armorial sense, 
but he opened up the present train of thought 
and research. Amongst many other emblems, 
Louis de Guise, Cardinal of Lorraine (obit. 
1578) bore a Paschal Lamb, surrounded by 
celestial light, and holding between its fore feet 
a cross, to which is attached a banner of two 
points, the whole encircled by the legend, " By 
birth illustrious, without deceit," an anagram on 


his name. The Holy Lamb, with a flag between 
two stars and a crescent, was the device of the 
Knights Templars. As already said, it is still 
the device of the Inn so recognised. It is the 
" Lamb and Flag " of the village inns. Pinato 
Birago, of Milan, Cardinal and Chancellor of 
France (ob. 1572), had various heraldic schemes. 
When made Cardinal, he adopted as more suit- 
able to his office, a Paschal Lamb, under its right 
foot a book, in its left a cross, to which is 
attached a scroll, inscribed, " The Lamb bleeds 
on altars," alluding to the purple of the Car- 
dinals, and signifying that every priest should 
approach the altar with purity. Thus, St. Philip, 
or, rather, his excellent instructions, passes away. 
In a secular sense only let us hope that he has 
proved an excellent guide, and a far better one 
than Venus with her apple. 

Enters next St. Thomas, symbolised by a 
lance. He was the first of the sceptics, and, at 
the suggestion of the Master, puc his hands 
into the wounds made by the lance and nails to 
convince himself that Christ had really risen 
from the dead. St. Thomas like St. Peter after- 
wards bitterly repented, the one of his infidelity, 
the other of his doubts, of the divinity of the 
Redeemer. In Heraldry, the lance is better 
known as the spear. 

It might have been expected that this charge 
would have been found in ancient arms, but, so 
far as has been observed, it is not the case. 


It is, however, not infrequent in later arms. The 
tilting-spear proper should have the vamplet 
shown, that is, the funnel-shaped projection near 
where the hand holds it. With the spear has to 
be included the lancey the dart^ and the javelin. 
It is difficult to distinguish them, but the lance 
is much longer than th^, dart, or javflin, and the 
head is not barbed. The dart may be represented 
as a long arrow, and, like the javelin, should have 
a barbed head. A broken spear signifies the 
lower half, the upper having been broken off. 
A half spear signifies the upper half of the spear. 
Interesting examples are numerous in British 
Heraldry. The most interesting of all is that 
grant made by Dethick to Shakespeare of War- 
wick, the father of the great dramatist, in 1 546. 
It is a very simple achievement — on a golden 
field, a sable bend, charged with a tilting spear of 
the first, headed argent. The family of Garhrand, 
not so illustrious, yet bears in its insignia the 
proud device of a tilting-spear and battle-axe in 
saltire. The house of Docker exhibits seven 
half-spears, and that of Pryce^ three spear-heads. 
But, under some definition or other, the spear 
finds endless illustration. In the arms of 
Thackeray^ a much less interesting name than 
that of Shakespeare^ is to be seen a dart between 
two garbs. Those of Scott (Whipsland), 
another great poetical and literary instance, 
comprise, roughly, a gold field, bearing an azure 
bend, charged with two crescents, and in chief, a 


broken lance. Scott, as well as Dante and Shake- 
speare before him, was the greatest modern 
disciple of Heraldry we have yet encountered, 
but the influence of Heraldry upon his work, or, 
rather, the poetical side of it, receives the notice 
it deserves elsewhere. In concluding this chapter 
we may be forgiven if we reiterate our conten- 
tion that the influence of Heraldry upon Poetry 
and Literature was great, and in this single con- 
nection spring up three illustrious names, namely, 
those of Shakespeare^ Scott^ and Thackeray. 


Tmi Lance (cont'd)— The Axe— The Saw— 
The Winged Lion. 

In Continental Heraldry, but few examples of 
the lance and spear are to be discovered. We 
may be reproached with a constant reference to 
foreign Heraldry, but it must be remembered 
that our own Heraldry was transmitted to us 
from the Continent. Abroad, we find the lance 
more commonly described as a javelin ; but 
the shivered lance in its delineation and associa- 
tion is most historic. Catherine de Medici (ob. 
1589), Queen of Henry II., was three timet 
Regent of France. She bore as her device, 
when young and living with her father, and 
continued it after her marriage, the rainbow of 
Irhy from the association of its name with the 
Florentine bay. After the death of Henry, she 
took as her badge a heap of burning ashes, with 
drops of water falling upon it, in allusion to her 
tears. Catherine also adopted several other 
achievements, and caused a medal to be struck 
in reference to the fatal tournament, displaying 
a shivered lance, with the legend, " Hence grief! 
Hence tears!" The Neapolitans, after the death 
of Alfonso II., who, from the wart of Charlet 
VIII., had been obliged to impose grievout taxcf 


upon his subjects for the defence of his king- 
dom, set up for device a broken lance, with the 
motto, from the Psalms, " The snare is broken, 
and we are delivered," meaning that by the death 
of Alfonso they were freed from servitude. To 
these examples of the shivered lance might be 
added the sheaf of javelins used by the Duke of 
Termoli, who was made Captain-General by 
Julius IL He died, not without suspicion of 
having been poisoned by some one envious of 
his reputation in military matters. His motto 
was, " They shall not be wanting to brave men," 
implying that he would not be wanting in 
missiles to keep off the approach of the enemy. 
This suggestion of the javelin brings us back to 
the British use of the same figure. The javelin 
in Heraldry, as already indicated, is linked up 
with the spear, the lance, and the dart, and is also 
associated in Heraldry with the Pheon. It is, 
indeed, very difficult to distinguish them. The 
Pheon is the head of a dart, barbed, and 
engrailed on the inner side, the broad arrow 
being in this respect plain. Its position is with 
the point downward, unless otherwise blazoned. 
They are occasionally borne shafted and 
feathered. A silver pheon on a golden ground 
figures in the arms of Sydney, Earl of Leicester. 
To Henry Parker, of Fryth Hall, Essex, was 
granted, in 1537, three escutcheons with a broad 
arrow or pheon on each. The families of Sharpy 
Lothaniy Briggs^ Jackson^ and Pearle are also in 


some measure distinguished by the adoption of 
a pheon in their arms. The term pheoned is 
also used of arrows to describe the tinctures of 
the head. The two houses of Brickdale and 
Shorter contribute instances; and Diane de 
Poitiers, Duchess of Valentinois (ob. 1566), in 
memory of her deceased husband, bore an arrow 
entwined with green branches, and issuing from 
a tomb, upon which lay a cross, with the motto, 
" She lives only in him," expressive of the con- 
stancy of her love; but Paradin gives it a higher 
significance, rendering it, " Alone, on that she 
lives," i.<?., in the hope of a glorious resurrection. 
On the walls of the Chateau of Anet was the 
device of an arrow, with the motto, " She attains 
whatever she seeks." This is the motto of the 
Marquis of Headfort. 

Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, who died in 
1589, was grandson ot Paul III. He and Car- 
dinal Ippolito de Medici were the two luminaries 
of the Papal Court. His device was an arrow 
piercing the centre of a target, with the motto 
from Homer, " Throw thus ! " As all eyes were 
turned upon him, he meant to show that he 
should have one mark or end in view, and pursue 
it with a steady aim, neither deviating from his 
course nor acting by chance. The Farnese arms 
are, or six fleur-de-lis, three, two, and one. 

Erik, Duke of Brunswick, who died in 1584, 
bore two hands shooting from a bow, an arrow 
in the air, with the motto, " Thus men ascend 


to the stars," that is, such is the way to immor- 

Peter the Cruel, King of Castile, 1350, 
adopted a hand armed with a lance, with the 
motto, " This is the labour." Deposed by his 
subjects for his cruelty, Peter was reinstated by 
Edward the Black Prince, but was afterwards 
slain by Henry de Transtamare, who succeeded 

Ferdinand the Catholic (1572), King of 
Aragon, by his marriage with Isabella of Castile 
and his conquest of Granada and Navarre, united 
the kingdoms of the Peninsula and became King 
of all Spain. Being much devoted to St. John 
the Evangelist, Ferdinand and Isabella adopted 
his eagle, with one head, as the supporter of their 
common shield. The arms of the different king- 
doms of Spain — Aragon, Castile, Granada, 
Leon, and Sicily — are all quartered in the escut- 
cheon of Ferdinand and Isabella. They each had 
their separate device. Isabella took a bundle 
of arrows with the initial of her husband's name. 
At this point the suggestions made by the lance 
of St. Thomas end. Their variety cannot be dis- 
puted. St. Matthew now brings forward his 
hatchet, better known in Heraldry as an axe. 
There are various kinds of axes and hatchets. It 
is impossible to classify them, or give the whole 
of the varieties, but the following will be 
found the chief forms which appear. The 
handle of the axe is sometimes called the 


stave^ or an axe may be hafted, and the blade 
is often referred to as of a different tincture, 
(i.) There is the common axe, or hatchet, which 
figures in the arms of the Turners' Company; 
the house of Jxall displays three silver axes on 
a red field, and that of Axtell (Devon), three 
silver axes with golden handles on an azure 
ground; (ii.) next, there is the adz, or addice; 
this has the blade set transversely to the flat- 
tened handle, and is sometimes called the car- 
penter^s axe. With obvious intent it figures in 
the shield of y^^(iic<?, which consists of three azure 
addices, with golden handles, on a silver back- 
ground. Wright, of Scotland, bears three car- 
penter's axes ; and Penfold also employs the 
hatchet in this sense. (iii.) Then there is the 
brick, or bricklayer^ s axe, a charge in the armorial 
insignia of the Company of Bricklayers and 
Tylers of London. The metal portion only of 
the axe is exhibited, and this is made broad, with 
the sides hollowed. This Company was incor- 
porated in 1508. 

Although of ancient date, this description of 
the hatchet appears to be used in a trade sense 
only. We have not discovered its employment 
on a family shield, (iv.) The same remark 
applies to the chipping axe, which occurs in the 
arms of the London Company of Marblers 
(afterwards united to the Masons), and is the 
axe which is still used by quarrymen in chipping 
the stones before they leave the quarry, (v.) 


Again, there is the daughter axe, the hatchet 
used by butchers for killing animals, which only 
figures in the achievements of the London and 
Exeter Butchers^ Companies, (vi.) The pick- 
axe seems to be the mmer's pick, and has a much 
wider use. It is also called a hew; somewhat 
similar to it is the double coal-pick, and the tool 
called a paviour^s pick. Here are a few instances 
of the use of the generic implement in this con- 
nection. Pigott, of Cambridge, displays three 
silver pick-axes on a sable field; Packwood, of 
Warwick, the same number, with varied tinc- 
tures, and also with distinctive hues the house 
of Pickworth. The tomb of William Clare, in 
Trinity College Chapel, Cambridge, bears a coat 
conveying three hews, or miners' picks, sable, on 
an argent field, (vii.) The battle-axe is variously 
represented, but this figure is much more common 
in Heraldry than some other models. Its usual 
form may be divined from its mere description. 
In the arms of Heyngeston, Cracknell, Bain- 
bridge, and Oldmixon, as well as in many others 
it has a prominent place, (viii.) The broad-axe 
seems to be so-called only from the breadth of 
the blade, difi^ering in no other respect from the 
other axes. Sir John Porter, in his shield, gives us 
an example of their assumption, as does Thomas 
Tregold. (ix.) The Danish axe was probably 
so-called because it occurred in the royal arms of 
that kingdom, in which it is drawn like a Locha- 
ber axe, but some apply the name to an axe 


whose blade is notched at the back. There is a 
form without the notch borne by Hakelett, and 
called a Danish hatchet. The Indian tomahawk 
occurs in the arms of Hopkins, granted in 1764. 
The coat of Sir Walter Hakelett dates back to 
the time of Edward II. There are Danish 
hatchets contained in it. Clarenceux, who was 
King-of-Arms in the reign of Henry VIII. , 
granted to Roger Machado five Danish axes 
palewise in saltire. Both Daynes and Hingston^ 
of Devon, have Danish battle-axes in their 
armorial insignia, (x.) The Lochaber axe has a 
curved handle and a very broad blade, and repre- 
sents perhaps a Scotch axe. It is borne by 
Ranken of Scotland, and Matheson of Benets- 
field. (xi.) Finally, there is the pole-axe, 
an axe with a long pole, often called the 
halbert, or halberd. It was used by tne men-at- 
arms in processions and on great occasions for 
keeping back the crowd. In the time of Edward 
I. Sir Walter Hakelet^ bore two halberts in 
saltire, tinctured gold on an azure field. Other 
instances are furnished by Eccles^ of Scotland, 
Pitman, of Suffolk, and Magdeston, of Lincoln. 
Taking our familiar excursion, the hatchet, as 
such, has not been familiarised in the realm of 
Continental coats. Neither do we find the adz, 
the bricklayer's axe, the chipping axe, slaugh- 
terer's axe, battle-axe, pick-axe, broad-axe, nor 
any of the other various descriptions of the 
weapon. St. Matthias was represented by a 


battle-axe, but, as far as our purpose is con- 
cerned, he has already been anticipated by St. 
Matthew. A pole distinguished St. James the 
Less, as has already been remarked, but this 
device is really a staff, which has already been 
fully observed, with its uses and its suggestions 
exploited. St. Simon, in Art, is perpetuated by 
a saw. In Heraldry this device is rare. An 
example of a frame-saw is borne by the company 
of fan-makers. One also occurs in the crest of 
Hamilton. A hand-saw is blazoned on one coat 
of arms, and a crooked saw is sometimes so bla- 
zoned on another. The crest of Hamilton, Duke 
of Hamilton and Brandon, is thus described : 
Out of a ducal coronet an oak-tree fructed proper, 
cut through the main stem by a frame-saw 
proper, the frame or, the motto " Through." 
The arms of Sawers (Scotland) are argent^ a 
chevron engrailed gules between in chiefs two 
escallops of the last, and in base a hand-saw pale- 
wise azure, handled or; those of MacCausland 
(Ireland), or, within a double tressure flory 
counter-fiory, with fleur-de-lis sable, a lion 
rampant of the second, holding in his dexter paw 
a crooked saw proper — otherwise a sabre, which 
brings us to the subject of sabres. There are 
several kinds of swords with broad curved blades, 
one of which is the sabre (French). In the arms 
of Agall, two sabres addorsed saltirewise are 
figured. The sword, as such, has already been 
suggested to us by St. Paul, and amply dealt 


with. So similar is the falchion, called also 
the hanger and the scimitar, that practically no 
difference can be made in the drawing, except 
that the falchion should have a blade somewhat 
wider in the middle. The cutlass is also 
found. Here are presented a few examples 
of the armorial emploj^ments of the falchion, 
hanger, scimitar, and cutlass, as found in 
British descriptions. The falchion is seen in 
the arms of Tatnell, of Chester: Hodgson^ of 
Boston, exhibit, inter alia, three hangers; 
Hodgson, of Surrey, three scimitars; Drum- 
tnondy three scimitars also; whilst Elam, of Kent, 
and TrosSy of Devon, both illustrate the cutlass. 
Seax — Anglo-Saxon, seax, Icelandic, sax — is also 
another term used, and signifies a broad curved 
sword, with a semi-circular notch at the back of 
the blade. In this form the sword figures in the 
arms of the county of Middlesex, and also in 
those of Gomme, a Middlesex family; but the 
grant of the latter achievement is no older than 

The arms used by the family of Bentivoglio of 
Bologna, are called in Bologna (where until 1512 
they held the sovereignty), the Sega rossa di setti 
dente, the red saw with seven teeth, on a field or, 
and this sega, or serra was the family badge. In 
strict heraldic phraseology, the arms are. Parti 
per bend indented, or, and gules. When Julius 
II., after having expelled the Bentivogli, made 
his entry into Bologna, the people, mindful 


of their exiled masters, received him in sullen 
silence, except when the sound of " Serra, 
Serra! " resounded in his ears as he passed in 
procession through the streets. Two more 
apostles remain, St. Jude with his club, and St. 
Mark, with his winged lion. The symbol of the 
first we have exhausted, and the lion, as such, has 
been noted; but the winged lion of St. Mark 
stands in a different category. As already indi- 
cated, the four symbols of the Evangelists occa- 
sionally occur in armorial bearings. The winged 
lion is the special impress of Venice, as de- 
scribed. Here we will leave the apostles, with 
a few examples of the foreign use of the animal 
without his wings. 

Pope Sixtus V. adopted as an ensign the 
device of a lion seated upon a square plinth, 
with a star and his hand upon three hills. It 
was accompanied by the significant legend, " The 
guardian of the sacred treasure is wakeful." 

The second prince of Melfi placed round the 
blue lion of his house the words, " Conscience 
and the end are consoled." Melfi is a city in 
the province of the Basilicata, founded by some 
Roman nobles who were shipwrecked in accom- 
panying Constantine the Great to Constanti- 
nople, A.D. 304. It has an entrancing history. 

The arms of the province of Zealand are a 
lion rising out of the waves, with the motto, 
" I struggle, and keep above water." When 
Queen Elizabeth concluded a treaty with the 


United Provinces, they added, " God being the 
author, and the Queen the promoter," i.e., by 
the mercy of God and the favour of the Queen." 

Pope Innocent XL bore a lion in a field alone, 
with the proud motto, " He does not walk with 
the herd." 

Galeazzo Maria Sforza (ob. ia76), son and 
successor of Francesco, Duke of Milan, used a 
most obscure device — a lion with a helmet on 
its head, seated before the burning branch and 
water-bougets of Galeazzo Visconti, with the 
phrase, " Belonging to Jove." This tyrant fell 
by the hand of three conspirators, urged by a 
fanatic to imitate the example of those in ancient 
history, and even in modern, who had perished 
in the extirpation of tyranny. This individual 
was a bold, bad man, but he helped to form 
Italian history, which in his time was the most 
fascinating and important of European histories. 

Lorenzo de Medici was the son of Pietro, 
chief of the Florentine Republic in 1573. As 
his device he adopted 3 laurel tree between two 
lions, with the motto, ** So too, is virtue," that is 
to say, virtue is like a laurel between two lions — 
you must face the lions to earn the laurel. " No 
cross, no crown," a device ill-befitting this proud, 
frivolous prince, who was as unworthy of 
the complimentary verses of Ariosto, as of the 
tomb of Michael Angelo. The figures on his 
tomb, in the chapel of the Medici, at Florence, 
are among the highest conceptions of the great 



sculptor. The Emperor Charles V. was sur- 
prised not to see the statues rise and speak. 
Mary Stuart was prolific in her devices. Her 
maternal pride is expressed in the device of a 
lioness, with her whelp beside her, and the words, 
" One only, but that one a lion." Her bitter 
sense of the insolence of her inferiors is inti- 
mated by the emblem of a lion taken in a net, 
and hares wantonly passing over him, with the 
bitter phrase, " Even hares trample on the con- 
quered lion." In King John, Act i, Scene i., 
Faulconbridge says, tauntingly, to Austria: 

" You are the hares, of whom the proverb goes. 
Whose valour plucks dead lions by the beard." 

Poor Mary Stuart was, at least, imaginative. 
As an antithesis, she describes the improving 
uses of adversity by camomile in a garden, 
with the legend, " Trampled upon, she giveth 
out greater fragrance." Her life not only 
points a moral, but adorns a tale. To the twelve 
apostles, who, with their varied symbols, have 
directed us in so many armorial pastures, we say 
now " Adieu ! " Apart from their direct interest, 
it will be agreed with us that their symbols in 
many indirect ways have had no small influence 
upon Heraldry. They have provided a set of 
collective illuminating suggestions, and it will 
probably be found elsewhere that they provide 
further finger-posts. 


The Eagle. 

We have now to return to the ancients. As 
already prefigured, their bucklers and ensigns 
were curiously adorned with different symbols. 
The contention that these emblems fore- 
shadowed our historical Heraldry is indisputable, 
and has already been made. Anticipating 
Armorial Bearings, and regarded in consistency 
with our system of associating them with his- 
toric Heraldry, they provide in themselves not 
only excellent but really great devices of the 
highest suggestiveness, and the value of their 
suggestions is hugely enhanced by the fact that 
almost all of these emblems, with their classic 
invention have found their place in Heraldry, 
whether British or foreign. Their epitomes 
of classic circumstance, ideal, religion, are of 
inestimable value. In their own fashion they 
record history. In this respect, the chisel, the 
needle, and the brush were superior to the pen. 
What the equivalent tools did under a fresh 
era shares this praise. We find the Persians 
carrying in battle a golden eagle on a white flag. 
That symbol was destined to change and revo- 


lutionise, and lay out the configuration of the 
world. The lion, in its emblematic force, is not 
to be considered with it. Cyrus, Caesar, and 
Napoleon link up various extended periods; in 
the chain, Constantine, Charles the Great, and 
many other names will also readily occur to the 
student of history. In British Heraldry, the 
eagle, as the king of birds, occupies a position 
almost identical with the lion, the king of beasts. 

Being recognised as the king of birds, it is 
natural that the eagle should form a favourite 
device. With the Romans, it will be remem- 
bered, it was adopted as their ensign, no doubt 
as symbolical of the courage and power attri- 
buted to that bird. It is found very frequently 
in the earlier Rolls of Arms, and is very common 
throughout the Middle Ages. In the Rolls, for 
instance, of the time of Edward IL, to which 
reference has already been made, over forty coats 
of arms bear eagles. In that, however, of Henry 
III., there are only two or three, and in that of 
Edward III. not so large a number in proportion. 
From the following selection it will be observed 
that amongst the earliest examples the beak and 
claws are blazoned of a different tincture from 
that of the body; and in Edward II.'s reign we 
find the double-headed eagle. 

The origin and significance of this, in relation 
to its employment by the German Kaisers, and 
the Russian Tzars, as successors of the Roman 
Caesars, have already been noted. 


In Edward III.'s reign we get the term 
eploye^ signifying displayed, or spread out, 
The mention, too, of the eagles, being tinctured 
barry^ implies rather that they were represented 
displayed, even were they not so described. 
Here are some historic examples of the heraldic 
employment of this really magnificent biped. In 
the time of Henry III., the valiant John dc 
Beauchamp bore a single eagle on a sable shield, 
and his contemporary, Due de Barantine, three 
golden eagles on a similar ground. Sir John de 
Caster, in the reign of Edward II., displayed, 
on a black field an eagle, barryy sable and argent; 
his contemporaries. Sir William de Graunson 
and Sir John Pluet bore respectively paly^ argent 
and azure, on a bend gules, three eagles, or, and 
a red eagle on a gold field. The ancient houses 
of Monthermer, Wanty, Sigetson, Chanseyre, 
also displayed the monarch of the air. In later 
arms the eagle is more frequently displayed, and 
it may be drawn in two different ways. In 
some illustrations the eagle is shown with its 
wings elevated, which is what is generally in- 
tended by the phrase, an eagle displayed; in 
others, with the wings inverted. The difference 
appears to be an accidental one. The term 
expanded is also found sometimes, which im- 
plies perhaps that the wings are displayed more 
than usual. Unless otherwise appointed, the 
head is drawn looking towards the dexter. 
Frederick II., Emperor of Germany, and 


Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, son of Richard, 
King of the Romans, both bore an eagle dis- 
played with the wings downwards, the field gold 
and the eagle sable. Monthermer bears a green 
eagle on a golden shield ; Pevensey, on the 
same field, a red eagle, armed azure; Bosseland^ 
Hiltoft^ and Canvill also exhibit the eagle 
displayed. But there are various terms, though 
not confined to the eagle, which are more fre- 
quently applied to it than to any other bird, 
namely, as regards its wings, and the several 
positions in which it is represented. It may 
be, wings close, that is, closed; or, it may be, 
with its wings elevated; or, it may be, with 
rvings disclosed, i.e., somewhat open, but in- 
verted, and pointing downwards, and this is 
practically the same expression as overt, written 
sometimes overture. The arms of Roper 
(Derby) exhibit an instance of an eagle close; 
likewise those of Gaines, of Leicester, Jervoise, 
Coton, and Riceworth. If it is recusant, it 
means the head is turned back towards the 
sinister, the term reguardant being used for the 
same. If in full aspect, it is facing the spec- 
tator; if in trian aspect, something between that 
and facing the dexter. Williams, of York, and 
Canvill, afford examples respectively. Again, 
an eagle may be rising, that is, about to fly; 
volant, that is flying; or eyrant, that is sitting, 
as it were, in its nest; or, it may be statant, 
i.e., standing in an ordinary position; and, if 


so, generally perched upon some branch or other 
object, or holding something in its mouth; or, it 
may be, represented as prey ant, or, again, preen- 
ing its wings. These arc a few for which 
examples are readily found. The achievement 
of Porter exemplifies the eagle rising; the 
arms of Stalton, an eagle volant ; those of 
Bardolph, the bird eyrant; and of Pynell, the 
eagle perched on a ragged staff. The Austin 
Canons of Caermarthen anciently employed the 
device of an eagle with wings addorscd, holding 
a slip of oak in its beak. Culcheth has an eagle 
preyant upon a swaddled child ; Densine, an 
eagle pouncing on a hare; and Rous, as well as 
Halt on, an eagle preening its wings. Again, 
eagles, whenever in the positions above-named 
or displayed, may have their beaks, talons, or 
legs of a different tincture from that of the 
body. Of the talons, the term armed is more 
frequently used, though membered is some- 
times used of the legs, of the beak, beaked. 
It is not unusual, too, to find an eagle 
crowned, or having a collar. Egleston bears a 
black eagle armed purple; Jernegan, a red eagle, 
beaked and armed of gold; the family of Este 
an eagle displayed sable, with a golden crown. 
The house of tVillcocks exhibit an eagle collared 
with a ducal coronet, and that of Carnegie hold- 
ing a rose in the dexter talon. When three or 
more eagles occur in the same shield, they are 
generally represented displayed unless they are 


found blazoned otherwise. In the shield of 
Robert de Eglesfield, founder of Queen's College, 
Oxford, three eagles figure, and his achievement 
is now borne by the college. Three eagles dis- 
played in fesse within a bordure distinguish the 
arms of Williams , and four were anciently em- 
ployed in the insignia of the Austin Canons of 
Marton, Yorks. Roger, Archbishop of York 
(i 1 54-81), bore five eagles displayed in saltire 
argent, upon a sable field, and similar arms, ex- 
cepting the tinctures, are also ascribed to Roger, 
Bishop of Salisbury (1107-39), ^^^ ^° 
Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln (i 123-47), but, of 
course, there are other 
examples. The double- 
headed eagle was borne by th« 
German Emperors, who, as 
already mentioned, aspired to 
be considered the successors 
^ "^ V of the Caesars, and hence the 

SALISBURY ^^^"^ Imperial Eagle is fre- 
FiG. 15. quently applied to it. Double- 

headed eagles form the 
supporters of the town arms of Salisbury. 
The wings of the imperial eagle are always 
drawn by German heralds with a small feather 
between each pair of large ones. An eagle 
is also borne by the Emperor, or Tzar, that 
is, Caesar of Russia. In the Bu\\6 d'Or of 
Charles IV. (a.d. 1323), the eagle is repre- 
sented with but one head, and it Is not until 


Sigismund, his son, began to reign that we find 
the eagle represented double-headed. The eagle 
in the arms of many English families can be 
traced to some former connection between these 
families and the German Empire. The eagle 
of France dates from Napoleon Bonaparte. 
Athestoriy Brown, Boucegault, MilUngton, may 
be cited as houses which adopted the double- 
headed eagle. One monstrosity may be men- 
tioned, an eagle with hound's ears, borne by 
Aerhorough. Eagles occur sometimes as sup- 
porters; for instances, two eagles are the sup- 
porters of the arms of Clarke, of Comrie Castle, 
CO. Perth. Eagles' wings are also borne by 
themselves; also the legs, which are frequently 
blazoned as erased. Counton displays three 
silver legs of eagles, and so does Bawde, of 
Essex. Eaglet is the diminutive of the eagle, 
and the term is more properly used when two or 
more appear upon the same coat of arms. They 
may have all the attributes of eagles. 

Alerions resemble eagles displayed, but with- 
out beak, or feet, and with the points of the wings 
downwards. The family of Limesey have three 
alerions displayed. Three of the same figure on 
the shield of the Duchy of Lorraine. These 
arms are supposed to have originated from the 
circumstance of Godfrey of Boulogne, Duke of 
Lorraine, shooting three alerions with an arrow 
from the Tower of Jerusalem, " upon the direc- 
tion of a prophetic person." A far more prob- 


able supposition is that the arms were intended 
as a play upon the name of the Duchy. Foreign 
as well as English Heraldry, provides some 
valuable instances of the use of the eagle. 
Caesar d'Este, Duke of Modena (ob. 1628), in 
addition to another device, bore an eagle, with 
the motto, from Ovid^ " No age can destroy it," 
alluding to the blazonry of his house. 

Amongst other schemes by Rudolph IL, of 
Austria {temp. 1576), was an eagle in full flight, 
holding a dart, with the motto, " A.D.S.LT.," 
which initials have been variously rendered, 
" The aid of the Lord is a terror to the unjust "; 
" The House of Austria is secure of the arrows 
of love "; and " God helping, I will subdue the 
Emperor of the Turks." 

Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga adopted an eagle 
placing its foot upon an olive branch, with the 
motto, " Let others wage war," implying that 
being a Cardinal, he left war to his brothers, of 
whom he had five in the army. 

When Mary de Medici, second wife of 
Henry IL, was declared regent to her son, she 
caused to be embroidered on the uniform of her 
archers an eagle crowned, covering its little ones 
with its wings, accompanied by the motto, " He 
covers the smaller ones with his bravery." On 
the occasion of her marriage with Louis XIIL, 
she changed the device to a pacific eagle, carry- 
ing an olive branch bearing the legend, "Nor 
are lightnings wanting." 


The Italian poet, Curtio Go «ztf^«, had various 
impresses. One was an eagle flying towards the 
sun, and burning its feathers, with the words, 
" Let his feathers burn provided his eyes feast," 
a device not without a trace of personal vanity. 
The fourth Duke of Urbino, of whom mention 
has already been made, had many ensigns, 
amongst them being an eagle burning its 
feathers by approaching too near the sun, *' That 
the eyes may enjoy, the feathers are burned." 

Like the last instance, this is amorous rather 
than armorial. It is only noted as an interesting 
piece of symbolism. The idea, we suppose, is 
the legend that the eagle alone can eye the sun 
without blinking. 

The Count de Montmajeur was ambassador 
from the Duke of Savoy to the Court of Charles 
IX., and he adopted as his device an eagle 
looking at the sun, with the motto, " I shall 
hold myself erect, and not blink," to show 
his birth from a house so noble and illustrious 
that he could, without being dazzled, sustain 
the highest fortune, and aspire to the highest 
honours that could be desired by gentlemen of 
his condition. 

Count Brunoro Pietra, being captain of the 
horse in Piedmont, took as device an eagle flying 
towards the sun, and, like Icarus, burning his 
wings. It was accompanied by a significant and 
praiseworthy legend, " Dare something worthy 




The Princess of Bisignano, Irene Castnota, 
bore a similar device, an eagle with its eyes 
fixed upon the sun, with a different intent, as 
the motto shows. It was, " That which can 
make me joyful with true glory." The phrase is 
from Petrarch, and used to show that she kept her 
thoughts fixed upon Heaven, which illumines 
the darkness of the soul and heart. The same 
device was used with the motto, " And in this 
I live, and care little for aught besides " ; and by 
Carracciolo, Prince of Brella, with the legend, 
" In this I live, nor do my wishes fly beyond," 
— in Him we live and move and have our being. 

The next example provides a variation of 
design and also of meaning. Galcazzo Fregosa 
adopted an eagle gazing steadily at the sun in 
the midst of thunder-clouds, wind, and rain, 
with the motto, " Neither kill me, nor alarm 
me," that is, he was not to be deterred by danger 
or difficulty. The eagle is the crest of the 
Fregosa family. 

As his device, Louis, the Bavarian (13 14), 
exhibited an eagle placing its claws upon a cleft 
globe, with the motto, " I will join the divided," 
a terse piece of pictorial description. The 
Emperor Maximilian II. (1564) had several 
devices. One consisted of the Imperial Eagle 
with an olive on one side; on the other a thunder- 
bolt — rather a curious association ; but the 
inscription accounts for it. It runs, " On occa- 
sion, one or the other," a very fair device I This 


potentate also bore the Imperial Eagle upon a 
crescent, inscribed with another iU-tempered 
observation, " I will extinguish or diminish." 
This personage was not the kind of person to 
meet in Hyde Park on a Sunday morning, or to 
ask to be obliged with a light in any other 
locality! He intended business. Peter II., 
King of Aragon (11 96), employed the eagle, 
with the motto of, " Under the shadow of Thy 
wings " — he was a man of less pugilistic and 
militant instincts. The Queen of Poland, 
Catherine, bore the insignia of an eagle and its 
young, with the legend, " Light to generate 
souls." With another inscription, so did 
Paul V. and others. Charles Emmanuel, 
Duke of Savoy (1630), styled "The Great," 
had several designs. When he went to Sara- 
gossa to marry Catherine, the Infanta of Spain, 
he chose for his impress at the carousal given 
on the occasion, an eagle looking at the sun, 
with the motto, " I do not degenerate," to imply 
that he would sustain the reputation of his 
ancestors. This prince had a great deal of 
trouble with the French; but his other ensigns 
are not here relative. In those days, everybody 
was trying to take away what belonged to some- 
one else. The ambition is still maintained in our 
own day, and, presumably, it will always be the 
same until we realise the dream of the French 
Revolutionaries, "Equality and Fraternity!" 
The first is only probable, the second a granite 


impossibility. A man cannot write an essay on 
Heraldry, and, at the same time, assist in the 
family laundry, or kitchen! 

Having had a little trip across the Channel, 
we will return for a moment to our own shores, 
where we encounter our own William Rufus, 
who, if history tells the story truthfully, was no 
better than he should have been! Dark and 
sombre rests his tomb in the choir of Winchester 
Cathedral, an excellent thing for the Canons to 
dwell upon as they sit in their stalls! He 
adopted a young eagle gazing at the sun, with 
the motto, " I endure," to signify he was not in 
the least degenerated from his puissant father, 
the Conqueror. But in fact he was, and, acci- 
dental or otherwise, that bolt which laid him 
low in the New Forest was not ill-spent. We 
go back to a more instructive use of the royal 
biped, by Bernardo Accoliti, of Arezzo, the 
favourite poet at the Court of Urbino, cele- 
brated for his exquisite skill in adapting his 
verses to the music with which he accompanied 
them. He was one of the apostolic secretaries 
of Leo X., and such effect had his talents pro- 
duced upon the people of Rome, that when it 
was known that Accoliti intended to recite his 
verses, the shops were shut as for a holiday, he 
was honoured by a solemn torchlight procession, 
and attended by a body of Swiss Guards. One 
circumstance is only wanting to his glory, that 
his works should have perished with him. 


Accoliti's device was an eagle proving its young, 
with the motto, " So believe," implying that 
our faith, like the gaze of the eagle, should be 
fixed on one object, ** It beholds the one." 
Pliny speaks of the attributes of the eagle, which 
are so splendidly and variedly illustrated in 
Heraldry. Literally, he tells us that before her 
little ones are feathered she will beat and shake 
them with her wings, and thereby force them to 
look full against the sun. If she sees one of 
them to wink, or their eyes to water at the rays, 
she turns it out of the nest as a bastard and 
none of hers, but brings up and cherishes such 
as abide the light of the sun. Of course, 
Shakespeare employed the idea. Richard, Duke 
of Gloucester, thus addresses young Prince 
Edward, in Henry VI. : 

" Nay, if thou be that princely eagle's bird. 
Show thy descent by gazing at the sun." 

And Ariosto styles the eagle : 

« The bird 
That dares with steadfast eyes Apollo's light." 

The great Richelieu, amongst other ensigns, 
assumed an eagle in the air, with two serpents 
rearing themselves. Motto, " He will not 
desert the heights," that is, he will not con- 
descend to lower himself to them. 

The "Nero of the North," Christian II., 


King of Denmark (ob. 1559) adopted an eagle 
fighting and overthrowing a serpent, with the 
legend, " We must fight," and he did ! The 
Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga, of Mantua (ob. 1563), 
Governor of Tivoli, son of Gian Francesco, 
brother of Frederick IIL and his guardian; a 
patron of letters, Papal legate, and President of 
the Council of Trent, adopted two swans fight- 
ing an eagle, with the motto, " Thus, they 
oppose one another." 

According to ancient writers, the swan is at 
peace with all animals, but the eagle alone assails 
it, and is always defeated; the swan fights 
valiantly, and justly conquers the bird who pro- 
vokes it. Thus, the Cardinal would imply that 
he was naturally peacefully disposed, but would 
defend himself against any who assailed him. 
As the swan never leaves her young in the nest, 
and bravely defends them if assailed, so also the 
Cardinal was prepared to protect and uphold 
his young nephews, of whom his brother 
Frederick had left him the guardian. Cardinal 
Barberini employed, besides the bee, an eagle 
in the midst of thunder and lightning, motto, 
" Nor fears things to be feared," the eagle being 
proof against lightning, according to Pliny. 


Letters of the Alphabet — The Dragon — 
The Cross. 

We have concluded with our old friend the 
eagle, who occupies such a dominant position in 
universal Heraldry, to the great enhancement of 
its beauty and interest. The 
Corinthians paraded a winged 
horse, but Pegasus and the 
horse itself have already 
passed under review. It has 
been noted that the Mes- 
sinians and the Lacedae- 
monians used as distinctive * ._ _,;— ,-_,^ 
devices, the initial letters of tiXJl. 1 JliK. 
their respective States. ^°* *^' 

Letters of the alphabet are occasionally 
employed in English Heraldry as charges. The 
following instances will suffice to show the dif- 
ferent ways in which they have been used. The 
letters may be old Text^ or Greeky or Romany 
and hence in blazonry the type should be stated. 
When an ttl occurs it is no doubt, as a rule, 
intended for the Blessed Virgin. Included in 
the arms of the family of Lang are the first six 
M 167 


letters of the alphabet, in text; the arms of 
Kekitmore exhibit three text S'jS of gold on a 
ruddy field. In the arms of Christ Church, 
Canterbury, is a cross charged with a letter 
resembling an " JC?" and the same initial 
occurs in another part of the insignia. These 
letters were evidently intended as a contraction 
of the word Christi. Since the Reformation 
this insignia has been used for the Deanery, 
the ancient letters having been changed to 
X and L The ancient city of Rochester 
bears an " r " in the centre, obviously with 
the same intent as the two classic nations 
which suggested this line of investigation did. 
The arms of the Greek Professorship at Cam- 
bridge, granted in 1950, sustain, in Greek 
terms, the first and final letter of the alphabet. 
To William de St. Mary's Church, Bishop of 
London, 1199-1221, are ascribed certain bear- 
ings, which are a silver shield, a cross azure, 
with the letter lltj crowned in gold upon it. The 
same arms are attributed to two other prelates, 
as witness : Simon Mepham, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, 1328-33; Simon Sudbury, Bishop of 
London, 1362, and Archbishop of Canterbury, 
1375-81. John Marshall, who was Bishop of 
Llandaff^, 1478-96, also included this particular 
text initial in his insignia. The ancient Priory 
of Bridlington, Yorks, used to display, amongst 
other features, three Roman B's; and the town 
of Horsham to this day bears a lion rampant, with 


his paw on the letter " H." Amongst private 
houses employing initial letters may be marked 
those of Clark, Althoun, Zeddes, and Shugley. 
Sometimes a combination of letters are used, 
and this especially in canting arms and in 
rebuses. Names of various persons and places 
are found inscribed, sometimes with, at others 
without, scrolls; but the examples are of no 
peculiar interest. All the same, the Messinians 
and the Lacedaemonians commenced a habit, and 
their suggestions plough another furrow in our 

The Parthians and Scythians introduce us 
to that awful conception, the dragon, better 
known as the griffin, which plays a considerable 
part in the realm of armorial illustration. 
Of course, we all know the story of St. George 
and the monster, with the option of believing it 
or not. It is usually illustrated on a certain coin 
of the realm. The griffin is the most frequently 
represented of the imaginary animals introduced 
into coats-of-arms. Although variously drawn, 
the great principle is that he is a compound of 
the lion and the eagle. The lower part of the 
body, with the tail and the hind-legs, belong to 
the lion; the head and the fore-part, with the 
legs and talons, to those of the eagle, but the 
head retains the ears of the lion. It has 
large wings, which also closely resemble those 
of the eagle. The ordinary positions arc, 
rampant^ generally blazoned segreant^ and 


passant. It may be represented as without 
wings, and with rays or spikes of gold 
proceeding from several parts of its body. 
Sometimes it has two long straight horns. The 
term alec is given, as if used by writers for a 
kind of griffin, but no example can be quoted. 
Rivers, Earl of Devon, bore a golden griffin 
segreant, on a blue field; Read, of Herts, the 
same device, except that here the shield was 
tinctured gules. Griffins are found as supporters 
to the arms of Alexander Annand, of Elton. 
Griffins' heads are also represented in some coats. 
They are readily distinguished from the eagles' 
heads by presence of the ears. Several examples 
derived from mediaeval times of the use of the 
griffin complete may be adduced. Amongst 
them is observed the composition of Sir Geoffrey 
Fitz Wythe (temp. Edward IL), which reveals 
three golden griffins on a blue field; also the 
achievement associated with his contemporary. 
Sir Robert de Brente, displaying three silver 
griffins on a red background, and also the in- 
signia of Sir Ralph de Cort, of the same age, 
who employed the same device, differing only 
in colour, that is to say, in this case the field is 
red and the animals are of gold. The reign of 
Edward III. promenades a similar example in 
the arms of Monsire John Griffen, the shield 
black and the beast of silver. 

Properly blazoned, these shields present very 
fine illustrations of real armorial devices, which 


were originally distinguished by their simplicity. 

A griffin segreant, volant, supporting an oak 
branch, figures in the achievement of Reade^ and 
the shield of Collins (Kent) shows a griffin 
segreant, ducally gorged, with its beak and legs 
tricked in silver. Three griffin heads figure in 
the arms of "Need and Trentham; Bishop Skinner 
of Bristol (1637), and afterwards of Oxford 
(1641) displayed as his arms, sable, a chevron or, 
between three griffins' heads erased argent. 

The dragoriy the next in importance to the 
griffin amongst the fictitious animals, seems to 
have had its origin— or rather found its place in 
Heraldry proper — in the stories brought by 
travellers who, on their way to the Holy Land, 
may have seen the crocodiles on the banks of the 
Nile, and exaggerated or idealised the form; and 
probably the word in some of the instances in 
which it is used in the Bible means the crocodile. 

But, on the other hand, as we have noted, 
this monster figured in the ensigns of the 
Parthians and the Scythians, and not only as 
symbolic of the Evil Spirit is it closely asso- 
ciated with the legends of the Saints, but, on the 
other hand, figures largely in all romantic 

Represented usually like the griffin, that is 
rampant, its head is that of a serpent, of which 
an essential addition is that of the forked tongue. 
It has also, like the griffin, ears. The body, 
as to its proportions, is that of a lion, but it is 


represented scaled, and the large wings, instead 
of being those of an eagle, are webbed and 
pointed, and resemble rather those of the bat. 
The legs are also scaled, and the feet are repre- 
sented usually with webbed talons instead of 
those of the eagle; a spur, moreover, is often 
added. The tail, instead of ending like that 
of a lion, in a tuft, is always represented as 
barbed in English arms, but in French arms 
it is sometimes represented with a fish-tail, and 
twisted. The dragon may also be represented 
without wings. Dragons' heads frequently 
occur as charges. The presence of the ears and 
of the barbed tongue distinguishes them from 
the heads of eagles or serpents. Dauney bears a 
rampant dragon sable, on an argent shield; 
Raynofy a dragon volant in bend sable on 
an identical field; in the arms of 
Southland it is blazoned segreant; in 
those of Carmally sejant; those of Hey gey s 
exhibit three demi-dragons couped; and of 
Horskcy three dragons' heads erect. The dragon, 
like the griflSin, is often used as a crest, or as 
one of the supporters. It is one of the supporters 
of the arms of William Hughes, of Gwerdas. 
A sea dragon appears on the crest of Sir Jacob 
Gerrard, Bart. (1662). It is allied more nearly to 
the dragon in the fore-part and the wings; but 
has a beaked head and ears, something between 
the dragon and the grifl^n. The hind-part and 
the fore legs are probably intended to represent 


those of a lion; but the tail is short, and is 
said to be that of the camel. This monster 
figures in the bearings of the Plasterers' Com- 
pany, and is a crest of the Company of Barber- 
Surgeons. It would form a difficult task in the 
art of surgery to piece the animal together in 
the flesh ! 

Also appears in Heraldry, the lion-dragon, the 
foremost part of a lion conjoined to the under- 
part of the dragon. Rouge dragon was a 
favourite badge of Henry yill. — it suited his 
gentle nature — and was assumed by him as the 
dexter supporter of his arms. The sea-dragon 
is also to be classed amongst monstrosities, 
though it has been suggested it is intended for 
the conger-eel, and thus the heads in the insignia 
of King's Lynn have been blazoned dragons' 
heads. Three sea-dragons f gure in the arms of 
Boston, of Devon. 

Pope Gregory XIII. had endless devices taken 
from the family arms, which suggested a famous 
satire of his time; among others, was a dragon 
with a castle on a height. The satire alluded to 
contained upwards of one hundred extremely 
sarcastic engravings, alluding to the device of 
the Pope, to whom this severe satire is dedicated. 
The device was accompanied by the motto, " To 
the highest temples." In the South Kensington 
Museum is a bronze gilt medallion of the 
Pontiff, the work of Frederico Parmense. It 
bears on the obverse a bust of Gregory, and on 


the reverse a dragon with its tail in its mouth 
encircling the field of the medal, within which 
is a ram's head, with a pendent wreath. 

The most magnificent patron of literature of 
his age, the Cardinal Ippolito Este, of Ferrara, 
adopted as a device the apples of the Hesperides, 
as recording one of his most valuable kbours, 
with the motto, " Not guarded by a sleepless 
dragon." Paul IIL sent him to attend the 
Conference of Poissy, and employed him to 
detach Henry IV. from the Protestant faith. 
While he was Papal Legate to France in com- 
pliment to the " Hercule Gaulois," he assumed 
the device in question. 

The great Minister of Louis XIV., Jean 
Baptiste Colbert, took for his device the dragon 
guarding the gardens of the Hesperides, with 
the significant phrase, " He guards and main- 

Isotta Brembata (ob. 1586) came of a noble 
family of Bergamo. She was a poet and an 
eminent linguist. So versed was she in Latin 
that she spoke in that language before the Senate 
of Milan, whom she had occasion to address. 
She took for her device the garden of Hes- 
perides, with its golden apples, and the dragon 
lying dead before the gate, with the motto, in 
Spanish, " I will guard them better." 

To refer again to the griffin, Baglione, " the 
tyrant of Perugia," who died in 1520, bore a 
silver griffin on a field gules, with the legend. 



" Armed against the enemy 
with talons, and beaks and 
wings," which means of 
defence proved of no avail 
when he was seized by Pope 
Leo X. 

The same device and 
motto were also taken by 
Otho, Duke of Austria, son 
of Albert I. Gryphius, the]^QJ{LA]SjJ[) 
painter of Lyons, had like- fig. 17. 

wise for impress a griffin, 
attached to a cube and a globe, the cube denoting 
firmness, the globe promptitude. 

As already specified, the standards of the 
Roman legions were various, according to the 
commander's whim; a wolf, minotaur, horse, 
or boar were all irregularly borne, and their 
armorial relations have already passed observa- 
tion. The Roman Eagle, as we have noted, 
was taken from the Persians, and continued the 
symbol of Imperial Rome until the time of 
Constantine. We have concluded with our 
friend the eagle, who occupies such a dominant 
position in universal Heraldry, to the great 
enhancement of its interest and beauty. We 
leave the pagan bird, and enter upon an even 
wider field in Heraldry, suggested by thegreatest 
symbol, in or apart from our art-science, the 
world has ever seen, or will see. If the eagle, 
as wc have asserted, exercised an unique influence 


upon the configuration and history of nations, in 
a geographical and autonomous sense, z greater 
prepossession and more spiritual influence was 
exercised upon civilised Europe by the employ- 
ment of the emblem we are about to introduce. 
The eagle, as well as all other symbols, in their 
classic and historic meaning not only pale, but 
shrivel before it. Under the claws of the 
Roman eagle, the emblem went down before it; 
but later it conquered Rome, saw Rome lying 
in the dust, the eagle carrion; raised up empires, 
brought others to the ground; established the 
Papacy, the mightiest institution and the most 
perpetual the world ever imagined; reformed 
nations, inspired them with the noblest aspira- 
tions. The eagle is, figuratively, dead, but this 
symbol still lives. It brought out the best in 
man, and shamed him of the worst. Moreover, 
it promised more, as it still promises, greater 
attainment and perpetual happiness. For two 
thousand years it has held out a light which no 
other symbol did, or does; it has made Art, 
Architecture, Literature, and it will always con- 
tinue to do so. This mighty emblem is simply 
an ignominious gibbet, eloquent of Roman 
tyranny and Jewish brutality, erected upon the 
site of Calvary — the erection of which signalised 
the rending of the veil of the Temple — upon 
which was crucified the Light of the World and 
Our Redeemer. No wonder, then, that it 
figures dominantly in Catholic — we employ the 


word here in its universal sense — armorials. 
How it transplaced the eagle is narrated in the 
beautiful legend of Constantine the Great, who 
adopted the Cross as his device and Guide after 
his victory over paganism. It was by that he 
conquered. The Cross in Heraldry, with its 
varieties of form, significance, sense, and hue, 
is a most important feature. Indeed, a whole 
volume could be written on this sacred charge 
alone. In our illustrations we have given certain 
examples, but space forbids us going into this 
figure at complete length. The term cross^ with- 
out any addition, signifies a plain cross, which, 
it is said, should occupy one-fifth of the shield; 
but when charged it may occupy one-third. Its 
use in Heraldry may be considered to be as early 
as any ensign, and to belong to the time of the 
first Crusades, in which the principal nations of 
Christendom are said to have been distinguished 
by crosses of different colours; and it is naturally 
found to be most frequently employed in the 
insignia of religious foundations. 

" And on his breast a bloodie cross he bore, 
The deare remembrance of his dying Lord, 
For whose sweete sake that glorious badge 

he wore. 
And dead, as living ever, him ador'd; 
Upon his shield the like was also scored." 

Spencer^s Faerie Queene. 
The primary idea of the plain heraldic cross is 


that the four arms are equal, and that they meet 
in the fesse point of the shield. From the shape 
of the shield, however, the horizontal bar is 
generally shorter than the vertical. This even 
armed cross is frequently termed the Greek 
Cross, to distinguish it from the Latin Cross, in 
which the lower member is always longer than 
the other three. The plain cross, gules, on 
a field argent, is termed the Cross of St. George, 
having been assigned to St. George of Cappo- 
docia, or St. George of England. The plain 
cross was amongst the more frequent of the early 

The Roll of Henry IIL provides three excel- 
lent instances. The first is the shield of the 
Duke of Norfolk, which exhibits a red cross 
on a golden field; the next, that of Piers de 
Samoy, with a red cross on a silver field; and 
Robert de Vere, a silver cross upon a red shield. 
Apparently, all three devices are the same, but 
actually they are not, as the play upon colour 
marks the difference, and all the schemes are 
very beautiful. The cross, as we have stated, 
admits of great varieties in outline and treat- 
ment, and the inventors of heraldic devices have 
not been slow to avail themselves of this, and 
heraldic writers have, in their ingenuity, multi- 
plied the forms. In giving a summary of the 
chief forms, we are met with the difficulty of 
many synonyms occurring, for practically the 
same form is often much varied by incorrect 


drawing, and much confusion has arisen from 
blunders of heraldic writers in misreading or 
misunderstanding the terms employed. The 
French forms are even more varied than the 
English. It is the plain cross which is most fre- 
quently subject to variations. Here follows all 
that is possible, a classification of varieties, but 
room will not be found for many illustrations. 

It will be well, perhaps, to note here that the 
edges of the cross are subjected to the same 
variety of flection as other ordinaries, namely 
they may be engrailed, embattled, indented, 
invected, wavy, raguly, &c., and this treat- 
ment is found at tolerably early dates. 
In the roll of Edward II. are two 
examples of the cross engrailed. On 
the shield of Balmain the cross is embattled; in 
that of Grandale, invecked; in that of Lorand, 
wavy; in that of Anketel, wavy; in that of 
Brothertony raguly. Next, the cross, besides 
being of various tinctures, may be diversified as 
the field is diversified. Thus, a cross may be 
chequy, compony, counter-compony, fretty, 
trellised, vair, &c. In the time of Edward II., 
Sir John de Kocfeld bore a cross chequy; at the 
same time. Sir Robert de Verdun, a cross fretty. 
Emyle supplies an instance of a cross vair; 
JVitenage, of a cross counter-compony, and 
Launde likewise. 

A cross is frequently charged with other 
devices. Sir Nicholas de Valeres {temp. Edward 


IL) charged his cross with four escallops; Sir 
John de Baddenham, his with bezants. 

The Cross may be of two tinctures, i.e.^ party 
per f esse, per pahy or per cross, which is equivalent 
to quarterly, and in most cases it is so in connec- 
tion with the partition of the field, and hence the 
tinctures are counter-changed. The arms of 
Brockhall sustain a cross per fesse, gold and 
silver, on a scarlet ground; Fuskenery, a cross 
moline per pale argent and ermine also on the 
same ground. Thomas Langton, who was 
Bishop of St. David's, 1483, of Salisbury, 1485, 
and of Winchester, 1492, bore, or, on a cross 
quarterly, azure and gules, jive roses of the 
first. Hawke, of Bedford, exhibit, per bend 
azure and argent, a cross moline in their insignia; 
and Almack, of Suffolk, per bend, argent, and 
sable, a cross-potent counter-changed. Ingham 
Abbey, Norfolk, in its insignia, revealed a cross 
patee, per saltire, gules and azure, on a silver 
field. Thomas Bentham, who was Bishop of 
Lichfield and Coventry, a.d. 1560-79, bore, 
quarterly, azure, and gules, a cross patonee 
counter-changed; in first and fourth quarters a 
rose gules barbed and seeded; in second and third 
quarters a sun in glory proper. Crosland bears 
argent and gules, a cross botonny counter- 
changed ; Bevercott, something similar ; Glen- 
denning, quarterly indented argent and sable, a 
cross counter-changed. Chapman, of York, per 
chevron argent and gules, a cross counter- 


Fig. i8. 
The Cross (cont'd) — The Raven. 
To continue with our most sacred emblem, the 
Cross. When the cross is composed, as it were, 
of five pieces or divisions, the central being that 
of the field, the term quarter-pierced is used. 
For example, the arms of Milward comprise 
argent^ a cross moline quarter-pierced sable, be- 
tween three crescents gules. The achievement of 
the city of Lichfield is constituted by ermine, on 
a cross quarter-pierced or, four chevrons gules; 
that of Bishop Buller, of Exeter (1792-96), by a 
field sable, on a cross quarter-pierced argent, four 
eagles displayed of the first. A cross is de- 
scribed as voided, when the central portion of 
the four limbs is of the same tincture as the field, 
and only a narrow border is left. The term 
voided is used of a cross in one or two ancient 
rolls in connection with resarcele, and it has 
been thought to imply that the voiding extends 
into the field, which may be described as voided 
throughout, as in the arms of Knowles, which are 
azure, crusilly and a cross moline voided through- 
out or. James Pilkington, Bishop of Durham 


(1561-76), bore argent^ a cross flory gules; but 
as it is possible to superimpose one cross upon 
another, and the latter may be of the same tinc- 
ture as the field, the result would be the same as 
a cross voided. Further, there is a third way 
in which such arms might in some cases be 
blazoned, namely, as fimbricated^ hordured^ or 
edged of such and such a tincture. Bradestone 
bears a cross fimbriated; Tippet^ the same bor- 
dured; Atkins, a cross-cotised. As with other 
ordinaries, a cross may be couped; then it is 
termed humetty, though the term coupee seems 
to be occasionally used. All the four arms are 
coupedy unless there is a distinguishing note to 
the contrary. John de Pontisarra, Bishop of 
Winchester (i 282-1 304), bore a cross humetty 
between four plain crosslets; and to William de 
Curbellio, Archbishop of Canterbury (1123-36), 
is assigned an azure shield, bearing a bend wavy, 
in the sinister chief a cross couped argent. In the 
arms of Peckham are exhibited a cross humetty, 
terminating with four leopards' heads; in those 
of Wanley, the point in chief terminates in a 
crescent. Sir John Morris, of Gloucester, as we 
discover from a Harleian MS., bore sable, 
billet^e argent, a cross, humetty at top, and 
then flory. 

Beyond the variations to which the cross is 
subjected, there are certain devices which are 
made up of charges arranged in the form of 
a cross. A cross, for instance, of four ermine 


spots, with the points meeting in the centre, and 
again four escallops' shells, or four pheons simi- 
larly disposed. Hurston provides an instance of 
the first; Wencelaugh of the second; and Truh- 
shawe of the third. 

With respect to the formation of crosses from 
lozenges, fusils, and masclees and mascles, the 
device is so frequent that the terms cross 
lozengy^ or cross fusilly^ or cross masculy of 
such and such tinctures, are frequently adopted. 
Instances of the application or all three are 
too many to record here, and here the subject 
becomes highly technical. We will now give 
some crosses with special names, derived either 
from their special outline, or from their termina- 
tion. There is the cross annuletty^ a cross which 
is couped, and has rings at the four extremities, 
not, as might be supposed, a cross formed of 
annulets. It was borne thus by Westley and 
Monsire John Molton. The cross avellane is 
so called from its resemblance to four filberts; 
but very few instances occur, although it is a very 
charming charge. An infrequent term, cross 
barby, apparently consists of a cross the ter- 
minations of which are hooks. It figures in the 
achievement of Tillie of Cornwall. The cross 
botonee is derived from the French, bouton^ a 
bud, or knob. It is a cross ending in three lobes, 
like the trefoil leaf, and is of rather frequent 
occurrence. It figures in arms as early as the reign 
of Edward III., at which time John de Melton 



displayed it. The cross Calvary, is a long cross, 
or Latin cross, that is, with the lower limb longer 
than the other three, and raised upon three steps. 
It has been poetically said that the three steps 
are symbolical of the three Christian Graces, 
Faith, Hope, and Charity, and it is suggested by 
theoretical writers that the bearer took the arms 
in consequence of having erected such a cross at 
Rome. It is also sometimes called a Holy 
Cross; but the device does not appeal to us in an 
armorial sense; it is more suggestive of an under- 
taker's cognizance. It is borne, with varied 
tinctures, in the arms of Qiuaile, Weston, 
Alymers, Moyne, and Anwicke. The Augustine 
priory of Flixton, in Suffolk, and that of Lenton, 
in Notts, also exhibited it. The Passion cross, 
or long cross, resembles the true Latin cross in 
form, but seldom occurs except when it is raised 
on three steps. Sempringham, the Gilbcrtine 
Priory employed a long cross as part of their 

The Crucifix occurs in one or two arms. It 
figures on the insignia of the See of Waterford, 
and Butler, Baron Caher (a.d. 1543), exhibited 
it. But there is a much more beautiful and 
more symbolic illustration found in Heraldry 
than the Cross of Calvary, from an artistic and 
aesthetic point of view, a cross degraded. 

The steps of the Calvary cross are sometimes 
referred to apart, and the term graded, or de- 
graded, is employed. A cross so distinguished is 


a plain cross, having its extremities placed upon 
steps joined to the sides of the shield. The arms 
of Wyntworth afford us an excellent example, 
and so do those of Woodhouse. There is another 
delicate example, or rather variation in the treat- 
ment of the cross, described as clechee^ which is 
rather difficult to explain in writing. Each point 
terminates in an almost kite-shaped head, the 
shafts narrowing towards the centre and having 
a small knob at each angle of the extremity. 
Some heralds contend that the true cross clechee 
should have the ends voided, but there 
seems to be no authority for this, at 
least not in English arms, and in French 
arms it is often blazoned videe. It 
appears also to bear the title with French 
heralds of " Cross of Toulouse," from its appear- 
ing in the insignia of that city. As depicted 
upon his stall-plate at Windsor, Sir Thomas 
Banaster, K.G., who died in the reign of Richard 
II., bore argent, a cross clechee sable. Again, 
when two or more crosses are borne in the same 
coat they arc termed crosslets. They are drawn 
couped. Distinct, however, from the crosslet 
is the cross-crosslet. The cross-crosslet is a cross, 
with its limits terminating in crosses — in other 
words, there are five crosses in one. Many 
examples are discoverable in Heraldry. The 
cross entwined has at each point three loops made 
by the pen in outline, but its use is rare, which 
is rather a pity, because it is artistic. A cross- 


crosslet fitchy is a plain cross, with crosses at the 
termination of the three upper limbs, and the 
lower member pointed. Early examples are to 
be found as far back as the reign of Edward 
in. Of crosses with a floriated termination, 
many examples are found in actual blazonry, 
but the nomenclature of both French and Eng- 
lish heralds appears to be in a very unsatisfactory 
condition. The term most frequently used in 
English Heraldry is a cross fleury, and this is 
also written flory, floretty, and fleuronny. The 
commonly accepted distinction is that fleury sig- 
nifies the cross itself terminating in the upper 
portion of the fleur-de-lis. There arc endless 
difl^erences between the English and French 
heralds over the matter, but we are not here 
concerned with their wrangles. The cross ter- 
minating fleury^ flory, fleuretty occurs so often 
in mediaeval arms that we cannot even attempt to 
cite them here, but, all the same, it proffers a 
beautiful design. One example, however, we 
must include, that of Whitgift, Bishop of 
Worcester, 1577, afterwards Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, who displayed a silver shield, on a cross 
flory sable, four bezants. Only in foreign 
Heraldry is a cross gringolee used; this is a cross 
with the heads of animals issuing from its ter- 
minations. Heads of serpents and of vipers 
occur, but the device does not at once concern 
us. The Maltese cross is a cross of eight points, 
imagined to symbolise the eight Beatitudes. A 


cross of this form is the badge of the Knights of 
Malta, and of some other religious institutions. 
Our modern Victoria Cross is derived from it, 
or, rather, designed from it. 

We next come to a cross having a great 
variety of nomenclature, as well as of form. 
The ordinary, and correct form, is the ctosS' 
moline, and, like the fer-de-moUne^ or mill-rind^ 
from which it derives its name, the ends are 
bifurcated, but they are usually made to turn 
over like the two side lobes of the cross-fleurj/y 
the central lobe being absent. Neither the fer- 
de-moline nor the cross-moline occurs in the 
Rolls of Henry III. In those of Edward II., 
the fer-de-moline occurs as a charge, and also the 
cross sarcelly or recercellee^ which may, perhaps, 
represent the cross-moline. Moreover, with the 
author of the poem which describes the siege 
of Caerlaveroch, the term fer-de-moline appears 
to mean the cross moline, as there is no doubt 
the arms of Anthony Bek, the warrior Bishop 
of Durham, " who sent his banner of red, 
with a fer-de-moline of ermine," were so 
represented, and a Bishop would be almost 
sure to bear a cross. The cross rescercleCy 
too, is found more frequently in the later Rolls, 
e.g., in Edward III.'s reign, and then it will be 
seen that the cross moline occurs but in one 
instance. The drawings vary as to the extent 
to which the bifurcated end is curled. Monsire 
de Chamberlaync (temp. Edward III.) bore 


in his insignia a cross moline, as does Moly- 
ncux to-day. William Moline^ Bishop of 
Chichester, 1445-50, exhibited in his achieve- 
ment a cross moline likewise. It is a beautiful 
rendering of the cross. A severe form, and, 
perhaps, one more akin to the original notion of 
the fer-de-moline^ is one with rectangular ends, 
which heralds have named cross mill-rind^ cor- 
rupted into cross-miller. But, so far as has been 
observed, the title occurs only in heraldic works, 
and is not applied especially to any actual arms. 
Here it may be well to include the cross fourchee. 
It is found in ancient blazon, particularly in the 
roll of arms of the time of Henry III. The 
exact form of this particular cross is not 
known. In connection with it may be noted 
the erroneous blazon of the shake-fork^ for 
the pall or pairle couped and pointed at 
its extremities. The term cross nowy, when 
used by itself, is supposed to signify that 
the arms of the cross, instead of meeting and 
forming right angles, stop at the edge of a 
circle, which, so to speak, cuts off the angles. 
Nowy quadrant is applied when the projections 
appear to form a square, and an example will be 
found in the arms of Lichfield. The term cross 
pattee more often written patty^ primarily 
means that the arms of the cross become ex- 
panded, or opened out, as they approach the edge 
of the shield; but this cross in itself possesses 
plenty of sub-variations, and it is difficult to 


define the line of demarcation between it and its 
kindred cross patonce. Le Comte d'Aumarle 
(temp. Henry III.), bore a cross pattee, as did 
Sir William Latymer^ in the time of Edward II. 
At the time Edward II. was on the throne he 
bore three crosses of the same kind, as did his 
contemporaries, Sir John de Berkeley and Sir 
John de Rosun. In later achievements it is 
very frequent. As to the synonym, formee^ or 
formy^ which appears to be used as frequently as 
patty, it is difficult to explain its origin or mean- 
ing. One example is found as early as the reign 
of Henry III., but no other till a Roll of Edward 
III., where certain small crosses are described as 
forme-de-lis^ that is, made up of the four flowers 
united in the centre. The reign of Edward III. 
provides an example of its use in the arms of 
Morris de Berkeley^ and Simon I slip, Archbishop 
of Canterbury (1349-66), displayed a cross 
formee of gold on a red field. Examples, how- 
ever, are fairly numerous. The cross patonce is 
certainly an ancient term, as it occurs in the Roll 
of Arms, temp. Henry III. The definite origin 
or exact meaning cannot be determined, but the 
primary idea seems to be that the arms should 
expand as a cross patee, and that they should 
terminate more or less like a cross flory. Some 
glass in Dorchester Church, which is not later 
than the early part of the fourteenth centiuy, 
gives a good illustration. It is contemporary 
with those whose arms it represents, namely. 


William Latimer^ Lord of Corby, who sat in 
Parliament, 128 9-1 305. In the reign of Henry 
IIL, William de Vecty bore a silver cross patonce 
on a red shield; and in that of Edward IL, Sir 
William de Latimer the same, but with varied 
tinctures. The cross patonce also figured in the 
arms of Richard Fletcher, Bishop of Bristol, 
afterwards through Worcester, of London 
(1595-6). But the cross patonce is fre- 
quently seen in British armorials. Then 
there is the cross patriarchal^ a cross 
which has two horizontal bars instead 
of one. It is said that the ancient patri- 
archs of Jerusalem bore this kind of cross, and 
that afterwards it was borne by the Patriarch of 
Constantinople; while the cross adopted by the 
Pope of Rome had three horizontal bars; but 
the historical evidence as to this adoption is very 
obscure. The name does not appear, so far as 
has been observed, in any of the Rolls of Arms 
of the thirteenth, fourteenth, or fifteenth cen- 
turies. Sometimes the arms in the fimbricated 
example are represented with the extremity of 
the lower limb and the extremities of the chief 
horizontal bar touching the edge of the shield, 
but it is usually represented with all the limbs 
couped. It is often blazoned as a cross Lorraine, 
and in some cases it is described as an archiepisco- 
pal cross, though it may generally in that case be 
taken to mean, instead of the Heraldic ordinary, 
a charge drawn like a crozier, and surmounted by 


a cross instead of a aook. In the arms ascribed 
to Ralph de Turbine, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
1 1 14-22, a patriarchal cross in silver appears upon 
a sable field. The same cross also figured in the 
achievement of the Cluniac Priory of Bromholm, 
and it is also the badge of the Knights Templars. 
A cross Lorraine is exhibited armorially by 
Goodhartj Kent. The cross pomel, or pommellyy 
is a plain cross terminating in four round pomelsy 
e.g.^ like the knobs of the end of a sword-hilt, 
or bourdons^ that is, the knobs at the top of the 
pilgrims' staves. This variety is variously de- 
scribed. It has many instances of its incorpora- 
tion into armorial illustration. There is^ 
further, the cross portate, or portante^ an am- 
biguous term. Authorities differ regarding it. 
One describes it as a long cross raguly; other 
heraldic writers give it to a peculiar form which 
is neither chevron, bend, nor cross, but an odd 
mixture of the three, and it is so drawn by Berry, 
who says that double portant means a cross 

The idea seems to be a cross " in bend," as if 
being carried. The cross potent^ written some- 
times cross potence, is so called because its arms 
terminate in potents, or like crutches. It is 
also called a Jerusalem Cross, from its occurrence 
in the insignia of the Kingdom of Jeru- 
salem, established by the Crusaders, the 
crosses being supposed by some writers 
to symbolise the Five Wounds of Christ. 


Amongst others it is borne by Allen and Aprice. 
A singular variety of the cross potent is called 
sometimes the Cross of St. Chad, because it 
occurs in the insignia of the Episcopal See of 
Lichfield and Coventry, of which St. Chad was 
the first Bishop. Some other curious varieties 
of the cross potent occur. To the cross resarcele 
we have already alluded. Of all the crosses, 
perhaps this has been most disputed by heraldic 
writers. The term as applied to a cross occurs 
twice in one of the two Rolls, which are appar- 
ently of Henry III.'s reign; also in a Roll, temp. 
Edward IL, two examples occur, with the term 
voided added, and one without, though in the 
latter voided is no doubt implied; hence, as the 
general outline was similar to the cross moline, 
it may be considered as a cross moline voided. 
It is thus seen in the arms of Knowles. The 
appearance is just as if in order to strengthen 
his shield, the smith had taken four pieces or iron 
and bent them round, as was done in the case of 
hinges and other ornamental ironwork found 
remaining on church doors, etc., of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, primarily to add 
strength to the woodwork, but, at the same time, 
ornamentation. A cross resarcel6 was anciently 
borne by Hugh de Bancory (temp. Henry III.), 
and by Edward de Paveley simultaneously. 
Indeed, several other interesting examples of 
mediaeval employment of this peculiar form of 
the Cross are on record. Three more examples, 


and we conclude the list of the Cross, as used 
in British Heraldry. The first is the cross re- 
coursyy which is a very doubtful term. French 
heralds blazon it also as alaise or retrait and 
consider it to be couped, whilst some English 
authorities imply that the use of the phrase 
means simply voided. The second is the 
cross tau of St. Anthony, who is represented 
with such a cross embroidered upon the left side 
of his garment. It should be drawn like a Greek 
tau; it closely resembles the letter " T." It is 
called cross commisse by some writers, with a 
somewhat fanciful allusion to Ezekiel, ch. ix., 
verse 4, or as representing the token of absolu- 
tion, with which malefactors are said to have 
been stamped on the hand, an idea which savours 
of inconsistency. It distinguished the Priory of 
St. Anthony, in London, and is displayed by the 
families of Wanley^ Crossley^ Berd, Thurlandy 
and Tanke. Lastly, there is the cross urdee^ 
written sometimes ai guise e^ or cross couped and 
pointed. It is drawn with the edges cut off 
and abruptly pointed. It is also found blazoned 
differently by the houses of Maugley and 

We have already mentioned that when the 
Danes invaded Britain they brought with them 
a banner endowed with miraculous powers, which 
had a raven embroidered upon it. That their 
adoption of this bird of ill-omen was proved to 
be fatal has been shown. In spite of his detest- 


able habit of croaking, he figures, not incon- 
siderably, in Heraldry. Probably in heraldic 
drawing no difference could be detected in the 
drawing of the raven, the rook, or the crow; 
and perhaps the old names Corbie, corby-crow, 
corbyn, corf^ and the other variations of the 
Latin, corvus, were not marked by any nice 
distinction. As will be seen, the bearing occurs 
on several ancient shields, for the sake of the 
play upon the name. It may be blazoned as 
croaking, the daw, as well as the rook, has been 
adopted for the same. In the reign of Henry 
III., Thomas Corbet, bore a corbeau ; in the 
time of Edward II., Sir John de Cormayles 
displayed corfs; Sir Pierce Corbett, three 
corbies, or corbyns. Corby n exhibits three 
ravens; Sir Thomas de Rokeby, three corbyns. 
The family of Raven employ the bird of their 
name, and the ancient arms of Hampden 
included a croaking raven. The achievements 
of Craigdaillie, Dean and Crowmer, blazon 
crows, and Dawson and Dalston daws. The 
Chess rook, the figure called a rook, in the 
ancient game of chess, is a figure derived from 
the Italian roca, a tower or castle, and has no 
relation with the bird indicated. It is an 
ancient bearing, and of frequent occurrence. 
In the arms of Zuleistean it is contained and is 
borne in an escutcheon surtout by the Earls of 
Rochford. In the time of Edward II., Sir 
Richard de Walsingham bore three, as did 


Simon de Fitz-Simon in the reign of Edward I. 
The families of Colvilly Bodenham, Marshall, 
Ogilvie, and several others, introduce it into 
their armorial insignia. 


The Raven (cont'd) — The Stag — The Lily — 
Architectural Devices. 

A FEW instances of the use of the crow on the 
Continent are as apropos as they are interesting. 
Mathias Corvinus, King of Hungary {oh. 
1458) bore a crow, the canting arms of his 
family. Also, a wolf, those of his fathers, to 
which he added the motto, " He nourishes his 
own, and other pledges of love," which had 
reference only to the animal and not to the bird. 
To Orsini, Duke of Paliano, was given the 
crow for an unlucky device; in addition, this, 
to the owl, the symbol of death. In love with 
a lady named Laura, Count Clement Pietra 
took the crow fighting the chameleon, which 
being wounded and poisoned by his enemy, as 
an antidote takes as a cure the fruits of the 
laurel, with the motto, " Hence alone safe." 
Pliny observes : " The raven when he hath 
killed the chameleon and yet perceiving that he 
is hurt and poysoned by him, flieth for remedy 
to the laurell, and with it represseth and 
extinguisheth the venome that he is afflicted 
withall." Giovanna of Austria, the wife of 
Francesco, took, on the occasion of their mar- 
riage, the device of two turtle doves and that 


of two crows; the one a symbol of conjugal 
fidelity, the other of concord and long life. So 
it would seem that the raven, or crow, was not 
always as black as he is painted. 

One of the Kings of France, as already 
noted, and chronicled by old Froissart, had a 
charming dream which induced him to adopt as 
his badge, a hart flying. This animal is uni- 
versally conspicuous in Heraldry. The term 
deer is seldom used in blazonry, but it is con- 
venient to employ it here as a general name 
under which to group several of the family of 
Cervidae. First, and most common, is the stag 
itself, but other names appear, frequently repre- 
senting varieties of stags, and in some cases 
evidently used for the sake of the name, rather 
than for any difference which could be shewn in 
the drawing. They are Hart, Buck, Roe, Roe- 
buck, Doe, Fawn, Hind, and Brocket. The 
Brocket is a young stag up to two years, or, 
according to some authors, to three years old; 
it becomes a Buck, in its sixth year. With 
them may be classed the reindeer, which heralds 
distinguish from the stag by double attires, one 
pair erect, the other pendent. It may be added 
that the old name was simply cerf, and accord- 
ing to the rolls, it is chiefly the head which 
appears in the ancient arms, but it will be 
observed that the two examples given are 
probably both allusive. In the first, the biche 
(French for hind), probably refers to the name, 


Beche; and in the second, the hert or hart dis- 
tinctly alludes to the name Hertford. The two 
examples indicated are respectively discovered 
in Rolls of Edward II. and III. In the first 
arc discerned, on a field argent, a bend gules, on 
which are displayed three cerfs^ heads sable. 
These are the arms of Sir John de Beche. In 
the other, Monsire de Hertford's, we find the 
heads of three cerfs or harts. Taking the stag as 
the typical beast of chase, it will be well here to 
note the terms which are especially applied in 
heraldry to the positions in which it may be 
represented. It may be statant^ which means 
that it is standing still, with all its feet 
touching the ground; while statant at gaze^ or 
standing at gaze, means that it is the same; and 
guardant, which is the term used of beasts of 
prey. Further, it may be represented as 
grazing, or more correctly (of stags) browsing, 
that is, with its head touching the ground, in 
the act of feeding, or at bay, i.e., with head 
downwards. The family of Holme display a 
red stag statant upon a silver shield. Jones, a 
stag standing at gaze; Blyth, Bishop of Salis- 
bury (1493-99) displayed ermine, three stags at 
gaze, gules; Nardley has a silver hind grazing 
on a green mount — field azure. Inter alia, 
Thornhill parades a stag browsing. Again, 
a stag may be trippant or tripping, that is 
passant, but in a leisurely manner, while courant, 
or more properly, in full course, means that 


the stag must be represented as if passing at 
full speed. Again, instead of the term 
rampant^ which is applied to beasts of prey, the 
terms used for stags are springing or salient. 
Here are some illustrations. A buck tripping 
figures in the shield of Strahan; Trollop, three 
roebucks in the same act; and Waist one has a 
reindeer trippant. The house of Hinde show 
three hinds tripping. Three bucks figure in 
the arms of Geoffrey Blythe, Bishop of Lich- 
field and Coventry (1503-31), which are also 
tripping. ^ 

Buckside bears two bucks in full course; 
Gethin, a stag courant; Strathallan, a hart 
springing; Dry hurst has two does counter- 
salient, and Barnard, a fawn's head. Lastly, the 
stag may be cou chant, or, more properly, 
lodged, which term is used especially for the 
stag. It may also be represented in a sitting 
posture when the term sejant is applied, the 
same as that used for other animals. A buck 
lodged figures in the arms of Downes, a hind 
couchant in those of Peyton, and a stag sejant 
in those of Boiven. The horns of the stag are 
considered as ornaments, and hence the term 
attired is more properly employed than cither 
armed or horned. Also it may be observed that 
stags' heads are very frequently adopted, and 
in one case, the stag's ears. When the 
front only of the head, with the attires, 
but without the neck, is shown, it is called 


a stag's head caboshed. One of the badges 
of Richard IL was a white hart, couchant 
beneath a tree proper, gorged with a chain 
and crown. This is shown in a carving at 
Westminster Hall, and a similar representa- 
tion is seen in the glass in the chapel of St. 
Michael in Canterbury Cathedral. The white 
hart of Richard II. appears to have been derived 
from the cognizance of his mother Joan, the 
Fair Maid of Kent, heiress of Edmund of 
Woodstock, Earl of Kent, son of Edward I., 
which was a white hind. Among the few 
friends who attended this unfortunate prince 
after his capture was Jenico d'Artois, who still 
wore the cognizance or device of his master, 
that is to say, a white hart, and would put it from 
him neither for persuasion nor threats, by reason 
whereof, when the Duke of Hereford under- 
stood it, he caused him to be committed to 
prison within the castle of Chester. This man 
was the last, it is said, to wear the device, and 
showed well thereby his constant heart towards 
his master. Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, 
Richard's half-brother, continued his mother's 
device of the hind. It is curious that a badge 
given for Ireland resembles closely that of King 
Richard, being a white hart issuing from the 
portal of a golden castle, triple- towered. King 
Richard impaled the arms or Edward the Con- 
fessor with his own, according to chatty 
Froissart, to please the Irish, " who loved and 


dredde him muche more than any other King of 
England " ; when " it were said the Irishmen 
were well pleased, and the sooner they enclyned 
to him." 

A while back, we alluded to the lily, or fleur- 
de-liSj the ancient and beautiful emblem of 
France, and gave a legendary account of its 
adoption, together with a practical one, which 
went to negative it. We have also spoken in 
adulation of the beauty of this charge, and 
described it as one of the most beautiful figures 
in Heraldry. The lotus-lily we have already 
noticed, but the lily itself in its generic sense, 
and poetical and historical value, calls for 
separate regard. The lily, needless to say, 
is the emblem of purity, and also regarded 
on that account as one of the highest symbols 
of the blessed Virgin. Next to the rose^ 
the lily is perhaps the most frequently borne 
of all the flowers, and there is probably 
little question that in fact this flower is the 
original of the fleur-de-lis^ which took a con- 
ventional form. By some the figure so fre- 
quently found is supposed to represent the Iris 
and not the Lily. Richard Mayo, Bishop of 
Hereford (1504-16), bore on a fesse a lily be- 
tween three roses, and lilies as such, slipped, 
figure in the arms of Eton College. Magdalen 
College (Oxon) also displays three slipped lilies. 
In this case, the lilies are on a chief, and William 
Patten, commonly called Waynefletey Bishop of 


Winchester, the founder, added the chief to his 
family arms. Barking Abbey, in its insignia, 
also employed lilies, three in number. 
The family of Denvile employs eight, and that 
of Lidiard five. Three lilies are represented on 
the arms of the Coopers' Company. The 
French heralds use the terms, lis de jar din ^ or 
au naturel, to distinguish the natural lily from 
the conventional fleur-de-lis. Lily pots also 
figure in Heraldry. A pot of lilies argent^ 
distinguishes the Royal Burgh of Dundee; the 
family of Argentyne display the same device; 
whilst a lily-pot also figures in the arms of J^ew 
Inrty or Our Lady^s Inn, London. As regards 
the fleur-de-lis itself, although there has been 
much controversy concerning the origin of this 
bearing, as already seen, no doubt it represents 
the lily, but in its conventional form, such as 
was produced by the workers in metal. It is 
essentially the royal badge of France, having 
been adopted by King Louis VIL, in the twelfth 
century, in allusion to the name of lois or lys. 
It appears amongst the royal badges of England, 
and since the reign of Edward II. (or III.), the 
French shield was arrogantly quartered in our 
Royal Standard up to the time of Queen 
Victoria's accession, the fleur-de-ly is variously 
written in ancient Rolls, and is subject to certain 
variations, such as stalked, slipped, leaved, seeded, 
and even fitchy. In the reign of Henry III. 
Robert Agulon bore three silver fleur-de-lis on 


a field gules, and, simultaneously, Robert Ageyn 
bore a lily floretty ; during the same reign 
William dc Cantelowe bore three golden fleur 
delices on a ruddy shield. But there are many 
historical examples to be found of the use 
of this flower conventionalized. Besides the 
ordinary occurrences of a perfect fleur-de-lis, the 
upper portion is frequently employed for the 
termination of other devices, or combined with 
them. The cross fleury, or flory, is the most 
frequent. A singular example of the mascle so 
treated occurs in the arms of Ma«, and the more 
singular combination of a fleur-de-lis with 
another charge has also appeared. The terms 
fieury^ flory^ fleur etty^ floretty ^ flourite^ or flurte, 
and similar variations, also signified adorned 
with, or ending in fleur-de-lis. The term, fleur- 
de-lise is also sometimes used in the sense of 
a field scattered with fleurs-de-lis^ being con- 
joined with a charge, another description 
of the same being semee-of fleur-de-lis. 
Fleury counter-fieury signifies adorned with 
fleur-de-lis alternately placed as in the tressure 
of Scotland. Fleur-de-lis have long been the 
distinctive bearing of the kingdom of France, 
and it is to the almost constant wars between that 
country and our own that its frequent use in 
English armoury is to be attributed. From the 
time of King Charles V. (1364-80), the royal 
insignia of France had only three fleur-de-lis. 
Before his time the escutcheon was semee-de-lis, 


which bearing was, as stated, probably assumed 
by King Louis VIL (1137-80). The Label of 
France is a frequent expression occurring in old 
genealogical works, it may signify a label, azure 
semee of fleur-de-lis in gold, or charged with 
three fleur-de-lis, or again with three fleur-de- 
lis upon each of the five points. In both the 
ancient and later arms of France the lilies were 
of gold, upon a shield of blue. The Dues 
d'Orleans bore the arms of France with a label 
of three points, and Edmund Plantagenet, sur- 
named Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, second 
son of Henry III., bore the arms of England, 
charged with the label of France. The first 
English monarch who bore quartered arms was 
Edward III., who assumed, azure, semee of 
fleur-de-lis or, in 1340, three years after his 
taking the title of King of France, his mother, 
in whose name he claimed the crown of France, 
being daughter and heiress of Philip IV. 
He is said to have set the example to others. 
Lorenzo Medici, called " the Magnificent," 
son of Louis XL, amongst his other devices bore 
a fleur-de-lis. In 1468 a tournament was held 
at Florence, at which he and his brother bore 
away the prizes. The privilege of using the 
arms of France had previously been conceded by 
his father. We find it in an edition of Plautus, 
in vellum, printed at Florence by the Giunta, 
in 1 5 14, and dedicated to Lorenzo II., a copy 
of which is now in the British Museum. After 


his viciory over Francis I., Charles V. bore the 
device of a fleur-de-lis, withered by blasts from 
winds blowing from the south, with the motto, 
" The south winds blowing," making allusion 
to the house of Austria, and to a passage in 
one of the Fathers, which says that the lily 
fades when the south wind blows. The arms 
which the blessed Joan of Arc bore, and her 
brothers and descendants took, were composed 
by Charles VII. himself, and are azure, a 
sword argent in pale, crossed and pommelled, 
or, supporting on the point a crown of gold 
between two fleur-de-lys of the same. The 
special device borne by Jeanne was a hand 
holding a sword, with the motto, " Streng- 
thened by the counsel of God," which is stated 
to have been seen upon a medal struck in her 
honour, after she had caused Charles to be 
crowned at Rheims. 

The devices of Ludovico Sforza were 
various. He ordered a medal to be struck, on 
the reverse a drooping lily, meaning Charles 
VII., bitten by a viper, with the legend, " Thus 
will I, the instrument of God, do in Italy, with 
its enemies the French." The famous Margaret 
of Valois, Queen of Navarre, presents in her 
age one long series of intercessions for the 
oppressed and miserable, and her power over 
Francis, which to the last day of her existence 
remained permanent, was always exercised in 
favour of others rather than of her own aggran- 


disement. Her Court was the resort of the 
literary and the learned. She had many 
impresses, one of which was a lily between two 
daisies, with the motto, " A work of nature is 
to be admired." With this we conclude our 
reference to the lily. 

A variety of figures are employed in 
Heraldry. War has furnished it with lances^ 
swordSy and pikes, and all these have already 
been adequately treated. 

Architecture has 
introduced towers, 
castles, arches, and 
columns. Towers 
and turrets are more 
frequently named in 
connection with the 
Castle, but they are 
also found in some 
cases as distinct 
charges. Though a 
castle is sometimes 

TTMXTTHl Tt? PTJ represented as a 
JLLllJNl3UKVjil single tower, it 

^^' ^^' generally has at least 

three. In the arms of the City of Norwich 

occur a castle surmounted by a tower in 

the chief, and in the base a lion passant 

guardant. The Northampton family of Towers 

bear a golden tower on a field azure, and the 

Shrewsbury family of De Tour, three high 


towers of silver on a sable field. Winston 
exhibits on a black ground, a plate between three 
silver towers; and Cornell^ five towers of 
scarlet upon a silver field. But the tower is 
also frequently represented as bearing three 
smaller towers or turrets, and then it is blazoned 
triple -towered, or triple-turretted; in that case 
it is sometimes drawn with the turret slightly 
sloping outwards, sometimes upright. It is 
frequently described as having a dome, or 
cupola, both terms being used for the same 
thing, and sometimes a spire or conical roof. 
Also, as provided with a port, or entrance, port 
holes, or windows, battlements, etc. There are 
many examples, too numerous to catalogue, 
wherein this impressive device is employed, 
and so only a few further examples can here be 
cited. A triple- towered tower occurs in the 
achievement of Towers (Isle of Ely), and 
McLeod displays a castle triple- towered with 
port holes and gate. Gilbert de la Tour (Dorset) 
bore an embattled tower with a cupola, and the 
Lancashire town of Clitherow displays an em- 
battled castle with three towers domed, on each 
a pennon. Bawson, of York, has a four-square 
castle in perspective, with as many towers and 
cupolas, one at each angle, standing in water; 
and Hunt, of Limerick, has, inter alia, a castle 
triple-towered, with the central tower of 
pyramidical shape, from which a banner floats. 
The term turret is sometimes used alone, 


separate from the tower, and can only be repre- 
sented by a small tower. The terms tourelle 
and tourele are also found. 

The word castle used alone generally signi- 
fies either an isolated wall with two or more, 
generally three, towers and a gate. A castle 
triple-towered is represented in the arms of the 
Kingdom of Castile^ and is often found quartered 
in the arms of Queen Eleanor. There is a fine 
example in some glass in Dorchester Church, 
Oxon. The burgh of Aberdeen displays three 
castles^ triple-towered^ within the royal tressure. 
Amongst other examples which occur are 
triangular and quadrangular castles; castles 
seen in perspective, and castles extending quite 
across the field. Castles are also described as 
domed, turreted, embattled, breached, etc., and 
it is not uncommon to describe in detail towers, 
gates, loopholes, etc.; windows, vanes, port- 
cullises, and the like. Where the masonry is 
shewn by the addition of lines the term masoned 
is used. The windows and doors are some- 
times represented as of a difi^erent tincture, and 
then are supposed to be closed; and the same, 
if they are that of the castle itself; but if of the 
tincture of the field, they are supposed to be 
open. In the arms of the town of Barnstaple, 
appears a castle towered and masoned, and 
several other vaned illustrations may be found, 
including that of the town of Lancaster, 
which displays, amongst other insignia, a quad- 



rangle of castles walled. Sometimes, the 
terms Fort, Fortress, Citadel, etc., are used 
The castle, too, may be surrounded with a for- 
tification. The family of Garston bears a fort, 
Harris, a fortress, and Green, a castle sur- 
rounded by a fortification. In connection with 
the castle, the Barbican, that is to say, the 
advanced work, is described in some insignia, 
and the projecting turrets, overhanging the 
embattled wall, called Bartizans in others. 
Other additions are occasionally named, e.g., 
the trench, or the castle may be standing in 
water, or surrounded by a wall. The badge of 
Jane Seymour, third queen of Henry VIII., 
blazoned upon a grant of lands made to her in 
1536, presents a good example of a castle. The 
tinctures are as follows : The walls argent, the 
ground, vert, the 
tree of the same 
fructed gules, the 
Phoenix or, in flames 
proper, and the roses 
alternately white and 
red. Castles occur 
rarely in old rolls 
of arms, but, in the 
reign of Edward 

III., Monsire de DONCASTER 
Granson bore a 
castle gules amongst 
his other armorial insignia. 

Fig. 20. 
The castle is 


borne very frequently in the insignia of Cities 
and Towns, with other charges; however, the 
evidence is only derived from the seal. The 
list is a very extensive one, and cannot be com- 
pleted here, although Bedford, Bristol, Carlisle, 
Doncaster, Dublin, Edinburgh, and Exeter 
might be instanced. 


Architectural Devices (cont'd) — Maritime 

This now brings us to the Jrch. It may 
be single or double^ that is, springing from two 
or three pillars^ which may be of a different 
tincture from the rest, as also may be the 
imposts, or caps, and bases. The family of 
Arches, with obvious intent, bear upon a red 
field, three arches, two single in chief and one 
double in base argent, the imposts, or, and 
another shield associated with the same name 
displays, on a similar field, three silver arches, 
conjoined in fess, with the caps and bases of gold. 
The column is classified with the pillar. Details 
of buildings are but rarely introduced into 
Heraldry, but when pillars occur they somewhat 
resemble columns of the Tuscan order, though 
plain Norman shafts with cushion capitals are 
sometimes to be found. The capital, the hase, 
and the pedestal are sometimes mentioned in the 
blazon. Many instances can be mentioned, but 
we will confine ourselves to a few only. The 
family of Upward bears over all its other 
insignia, a red pillar issuing out of the base; 
Major (Suffolk), three pillars of the Corinthian 



order ; Bartolozzi, an eagle resting each claw 
on a column, with base and capital of different 
tinctures; and Deale, also a column. Here it is 
interesting to observe that the Institute of 
British Architects in its arms exhibits a column 
marked in a singular way, amidst its various 
other armorial distinctions or attributes. Our 
architectural suggestions are far from exhausted. 
We can only deal here with a few of them, and 
leave the rest to the interested student. We 
use the term " student " advisedly, because no 
one who approaches the subject can possibly 
master it. The tortuous ways in which Archi- 
tecture alone would fain lead us, to thoughts and 
considerations which would drive him off his 
head ! Then comes the spire, a term which is 
sometimes found in connection with towers of 
castles, etc., to describe the conical roofs. In 
one case only has it been observed used as a 
charge. The town of Queenborough, Kent, 
displays on a mount a castle with five spires, 
but this is a corporate design ; the family 
employment is unique in the achievement of 
Dakeham, which displays three silver spires, a 
golden ball and cross on each, all against a red 
ground. We will conclude this architectural 
aside with the bridge. When this charge occurs, 
the number of its arches, and all its other 
peculiarities, should be carefully noticed in the 
blazon. The charge occurs in the insignia of 
several towns, for instance, Bideford, Bridg- 


water, Grampoundy and so forth. It also occurs 
in several family achievements. The arms of 
Bridge, with apparent allusion, exhibit a bridge 
of one arch; and those of Craig — of Scotland 
and Ireland respectively — three bridges, of as 
many arches. Turning to Continental Heraldry, 
Henry III., King of Castile (1390) bore a pyra- 
midical tower, with the legend, " In vain but 
by the Lord's help." Bertoldo Farnese also 
made use of a tower. In a.d. 1554, during the 
war in Tuscany, Bertoldo, a devoted servant of 
the house of Austria, fitted out a galley at his 
own expense. He was attacked by the French, 
and after a gallant defence, was taken prisoner, 
but released with a heavy ransom. He returned 
home, having lost his galley and his property; 
and then to show that his mind was unshaken 
by calamity, and that he still relied upon the 
help of the Almighty, he took for device a tower 
with the inscription, " The Name of the Lord," 
from Proverbs xviii. 10, "The name of the 
Lord is a strong tower; the righteous runneth 
into it, and is safe." Although armorial usage 
of this figure in British Heraldry was not quite 
so religious, the castle stood for force, and of 
course every one who employed it thought that 
God was on his side, and that side he considered 
to be right. It was put, however, to ugly uses, 
far from righteous, both in British and foreign 
countries, and was, in short, the perpetuation of 
the evil principle, that " Might is Right." 


Somebody always wanted to kill somebody; 
the principle has survived to our own day, 
although we use different methods. 

But this is a digression. Of the column, we 
have several illuminating schemes. 

The ensign of the Colonna family is a silver 
column with base and capital of gold, sur- 
mounted by a golden crown, the grant of the 
Emperor Louis of Bavaria, in acknowledgment 
of the service rendered to him by Stefano 
Colonna, who, as above remarked, when chief 
senator of Rome, crowned Louis in the Capitol, 
contrary to the wishes of the Pope. 

Cardinal dc Beragne, Cardinal and Chancellor 
of France (died 1572), took as his device a 
column surmounted by a burning globe, with 
the motto, " Fires yield not to fires," as em- 
blematic of his affection for his wife, to whom 
he was married before he embraced the eccle- 
siastical profession. 

Francis IL, " the Innocent," had for his sup- 
porters two lions of Scotland, as sovereign of 
that kingdom. His ordinary device was a 
burning column, encircled by a scroll upon 
which was inscribed " A light to the upright," 
in allusion to the column of fire which guided 
the Israelites by night, and meaning that the 
Almighty always grants His light as a guide to 
those who seek Him. 

The Constanti Academy had as its cog- 
nizance the sun shining on a column; the 


shadow moves with the sun, the column remains 
unmoved — the legend, " The shadow only 

Marco Antonio Colonna, grandson of 
Fabrizio, General of the Papal troops at the battle 
of Lepanto, in 1571, and the "Colonna" of 
the Spanish Armada, took a column between the 
two points of a crescent, which it prevents from 
meeting, with the motto, "Lest it should fill 
the whole world," to express that by the victory 
of Lepanto he, the column, prevented the Turks 
from extending their conquests. 

Gabrielle Cesarini, of Rome, exhibited a 
broken column with the motto, " I am broken, 
but will not be bent." 

This is rather a paradox, because a smashed 
pillar was obviously of less significance than 
a bent one. 

The Emperor Charles V., after he assumed 
imperial rank, adopted the device of the 
columns of Hercules, with the motto, " More 
beyond." The words refer to the acquisition of 
a world unknown to the ancients, or perhaps 
not only to the actual passing of the boundaries 
presented by Hercules, but to show that he 
would surpass the fabled hero in fame, valour, 
and glory. These pillars of Hercules are con- 
stantly mentioned in poetry. 

When Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, 
had been successful over the Spaniards, a medal 
was struck in 1631, on the reverse of which 


were the columns of Hercules, the one falling, 
the other borne up by the lion of Holland — 
motto, " He hath shaken both." 

Charles V., after the siege of Metz, employed 
the device of an eagle attached to the column of 
Hercules, with the motto, " Not beyond the 
boundaries." Francois de Guise having obliged 
him to retire, chained the imperial eagle to the 
columns, with the motto, " Thou shalt not go 
beyond Metz." The " Hercules' Pillars " was a 
sign in Fleet Street, probably after the visit of 
the Emperor Charles V. to this country. Pepys 
mentions taking a friend " to * Hercules' Pillars ' 
to drink"; and again, "with Mr. Creed to 
* Hercules' Pillars,' where we drank." On a 
token is a crowned male figure erect, and grasp- 
ing a pillar in each hand, which, but for the 
inscription, might be supposed to represent 
Samson pulling down the pillars of the Temple 
of Dagon. 

The columns of cloud and fire of the 
Israelites, with the motto, " Be my guides," 
distinguished the family of Vitelleschi. 

Finally, to the youthful monarch, Charles 
IX., was given, with better intention than fore- 
sight, the motto, " With piety and justice," with 
two columns interlaced showing that these two 
virtues are the support of government. Charles 
IX. was godson to Charles V., who assumed the 
columns of Hercules, and it was probably in 
imitation of the device of his godfather that 


Charles IX., had for his Impress the two twisted 
pillars of the Temple of Jerusalem, called Jakin 
and Boaz. 

Navigation has, as foreshadowed, supplied 
Heraldry with several suggestions, notably the 
Shipj which has already received some notice. 
The Continent, however, adds some examples 
of interest. Andrea Doria (ob. 1560) was 
the most able captain of his age. By his 
assistance the French, under Lantree, made 
themselves masters of Genoa. Displeased with 
his allies, Doria went over to the Emperor 
Charles V., who loaded him with favours. He 
delivered Genoa from the French yoke, and 
though it was in his power to have rendered 
himself sovereign of his country, he sacrificed all 
thoughts of personal aggrandisement to the 
satisfaction of establishing liberty. This re- 
doubtable Admiral bore the ensign of a ship, 
with the motto, " I trust all to Fortune " — 
words, as he says, more befitting the mouth of 
an heathen. " Watchful on the sea " was 
another motto of his, which may well be com- 
mended to our own admirals. Drake did not 
need such a maxim! He pretty well ransacked 
the seas. 

Alfonso IV., King of Portugal (ob. 1325), 
displayed a ship in mil sail, with the motto, 
" The sail to the winds," in which there is some 
poetic feeling. 

The Marquis of Marignan (ob. 1555) as- 


sumed the arms of the Medici family, though 
he bore no relation to it. He was one of the 
great captains of his day. Charles V. made him 
a marquis. He was brother to Pius IV., who 
caused a magnificent mausoleum to be raised 
over him in the Cathedral of Milan, designed, 
it is said, by Michael Angelo. His ensign was 
a ship in a troubled sea with the legend, " The 
watchful guardians of the Lord." 

These old warriors and sea-dogs had faith, 
notwithstanding their redoubtable vices and 
frailties. But in exaggerating these, we must 
recollect they lived in an age of iron and steel. 

Cardinald Granveld (ob. 1560) paraded the 
ensign of a ship beaten by the waves, with the 
motto "Endure," from the Mneidy when MneaSy 
in the act of being shipwrecked by his enemy, 
Juno, addresses a consolatory speech to his com- 

" Endure the hardships of the present state; 
Live and reserve yourselves for better fate." 

This is from Dryden's translation of Virgil. 
Hold out and preserve yourselves for more 
prosperous circumstances. The hope of better 
times is the strongest argument that can be used 
to inspirit the drooping resolution. 

The Prince de Ligne (oh. 1670), who was 
Viceroy of Sicily and Governor of Milan, struck 
a medal; on the reverse, a ship beaten by the 


waves, traversed with the bend of the arms of 
de Ligne, with the inscription, " Whatever 
befalls this line is always straight." 

Wenceslaus, Emperor of Germany and 
Austria (1378), bore as his device a ship in a 
storm, with the sensible motto, " We must obey 
the seasons." He had, by the way, another 
intelligent maxim, " Lovers of fools are the 
worst buffoons " ! 

Poor Mary Stuart was as great at her needle- 
work as she was poetic in her Latin. Amongst 
her innumerable badges was a ship with its 
masts shivered, still resisting the buffeting of 
the ocean, with the motto, " Never till righted," 
or " Never unless erect," descriptive of her 
invincible constancy — though assailed on every 
side by her Protestant subjects — to remain firm 
in the Catholic faith. On the scaffold she nobly 
declared : " I was born in the Catholic faith, I 
have lived in the Catholic faith, and I am 
resolved to die in it." 

Heads were cheap in those days, the royal and 
noble ones particularly. 

Two more foreign examples, which are 30 
expressive, remain to be noted. 

Scipione Gonzaga bore a vessel with the sails 
furled, and impelled by oars. " I rely upon my 
own." Cardinal Ercole was his friend and patron. 
The furled sails indicate that he had lost the 
assistance he had received, and must make his 
way through life's troubled sea by his own excr- 


tions, namely, the oars. The studious Alfonso 
L, called the Wise, or the Magnanimous (ob. 
1458), had amongst his other devices, a ship and 
a pole-star, with the logical motto : " A good 
guide." So very studious was this potentate 
that he always carried Casar^s Commentaries 
about with him, and slept with his books under 
his pillow — one is occasionally addicted to the 
dangerous habit of reading in bed, but the most 
devout lover of literature would hardly rest 
comfortably upon a pillow of books. By swift 
transit the ship brings us to the Anchor^ a very 
beautiful Heraldic figure, which is emblematical 
of Hope^ or of Naval service. It is frequently 
used as a charge or crest. In old examples, it 
is not infrequently ringed at the point as well as 
at the head. The parts are thus named : the 
shanky or beam; the stock, timber, or cross- 
piece; the cable, and the fluke. In some coats of 
arms, the anchor has attached a chain instead of a 
cable. In the shield of Skipton, which is of 
gold, a black anchor figures; in that of Zachert, 
which is of red, occurs an anchor argent with a 
golden ring. The seal of the Navy Oflfice has 
an anchor between two smaller ones, within the 
beam and fluke, and the same symbol figures in 
the arms of Clements Inn, entwined in the 
centre with the letter " C " in gold. Cosmo, the 
first Grand Duke of Tuscany, gained the 
victory which established his authority and 
extinguished the Florentine Republic in A.D. 


1538. He had many signs, and among them 
he adopted two anchors crossed with the motto, 
"By two," meaning either that he had secured his 
authority upon two supports, the protection of 
the Emperor Chas. V. and the impregnable con- 
dition of his fortresses; or as Domenichi infers, 
upon the affections of his subjects and the fear of 
God. One of the badges of our own Richard I., 
of most famous memory, was a sun on two 
anchors, with the motto, " Christ my Leader." 
On the mausoleum of William of Orange, at 
Delft, are his various emblems, one of which 
comprises two anchors with an appropriate 
legend. One of the chief features of 
a ship is, of course, the mast. "When 
ships are blazoned in Heraldry they 
should be most scrupulously blazoned, care 
being especially taken to state the number of 
masts and topmasts^ whether there are any sailsy 
and if any, whether they are furled or not. The 
riggings too, is often of a different tincture. The 
rudder is borne but in few arms. The actual 
position seems to be, with the hooks to the 
dexter, but they are sometimes drawn turned the 
other way, and should be so noticed in the 
blazon. Scollay, of Scotland, on a green field, 
bears a silver rudder in chief, Putland, of Ire- 
land, amongst its other insignia, has three sable 
rudders. Three rudders also figure in the arms 
of Burbidge, of the County of Devon. The 
oar refers us to the boat. Besides the larg^? 


ships, which are somewhat frequent, there are 
smaller vessels of various kinds used in Heraldry 
as charges which may better be classed with the 
boat. Lighter-hoRt^ open boat, bark, skiff and 
raft. Boat-hooks and also the ho3.t-oars are borne 
separately. A common boat is the crest of the 
family of Ames. In the arms of Macnab^ an 
open boat figures on the sea. The insignia of 
the Company of Watermen, which was incor- 
porated in I5<;6, comprises, upon a shield, Barry 
wavy of sixy argent and azure, on the middle bar, 
a golden boat, on a chief of silver two oars in 
saltire of gold, between two tasselled cushions. 
The arms of Aycr, are, three golden barks on 
an azure field. A skiff figures in the arms of 
O'Malley, and a raft in those of Bretvill, whilst 
Torrance bears two boat oars in saltire. Andre 
Lavale, Admiral of France, bore a flaming oar 
with the motto, ^^ Pour un autre non,^^ to indi- 
cate his ardent zeal in the service of his King. 
Whilst here we cease to treat, or regard nautical 
ideas embodied in the field of armorial illustra- 
tion, we have by no means exhausted them. 
Naval elements figure largely in our Heraldry, 
and it would take a volume to deal with them 
adequately. To us, the command of the Sea, 
means All or Nothing. It is well then, that 
maritime devices should have a large place in our 
Heraldry. With all his abominable faults, we 
must give credit to that much maligned monarch. 
King John. He not only, reluctantly, it must 


be confessed, gave us the Charter of our Liber- 
ties, but he laid the foundations of the British 
Navy, of which what we see is only the result 
or development. A bad King he was, no one 
can dispute, but he was first to proclaim his right 
to the narrow sea, and to lay down a dockyard 
(at Portsmouth) for the purpose of building 
and equipping war vessels for the protection 
of that sea. More credit should be given this 
horrible monarch than historians generally give 
him. If it had not been for him there would 
be no " Rule Britannia " in our day. 

Agricultural and Astronomical Devices. 

Agriculture next broadens upon us with 
gates J wheels^ harrows, ploughs, and rakes, 
really, a more peaceful art, than that of Naviga- 
tion, which, whilst it speaks of commerce beyond 
the seas, also speaks more loudly of smashing the 
boats of other nations. That ancient din we 
still have in our ears. But this is not an essay 
on politics, but on Heraldry. We will take, 
in their order, gates first. In British Heraldry, 
the gate, as a charge, is rarely borne, and then, 
generally, for the sake of the name. The family 
of Yates display, on a silver field, a fesse between 
three sable gates; Teates of Bristol, and Tate 
of Berkshire, also have the same charge in 
their arms. Portnowe exhibits a gate between 
three goats passant. As distinguished from the 
field-gate, is the gateway which is sometimes 
called the port, or portal. Here, we may 
refer the reader to our mention of Castles. A 
gateway, as such, figures in the shields of Sau- 
quhan (Scot.), and of Richard Ransom, who was 
Alderman of London, A.D. 1746. Willigis, 
Archbishop of Mayence, employed the wheel. 
When Otho III. succeeded, in 983, at the age of 


three years, to the Empire, Henry, Duke of 
Bavaria, renewed his attempts on the crown of 
Germany, and endeavoured to get possession of 
the king's person, but the nobles would not sup- 
port him. At the head of these loyalists was 
Willigis, Archbishop of Mayence, the son of a 
wheelwright^ who adopted as his arms a wheel, 
with the motto, " Willigis, forget not thine 
origin " — ^rather a lesson to some peers who 
would fain forget theirs. Hence, the arms of 
the electoral sec of Mayence have ever since been 
gules, a wheel with six spokes argent. The Sire 
de la Trimouille, at the age of twenty-seven, 
gained the battle of St. Aubin-de-Cormiac, against 
the Duke of Brittany, where he made prisoners 
the Prince of Orange and Louis, Duke of 
Orleans. When Louis became king, his courtiers 
reminded him of his wrongs at St. Aubin, which 
occasioned the memorable answer that " it did 
not become the King of France to avenge the 
injuries of the Duke of Orleans." Louis con- 
fided to Trimouille the command of the army 
of Italy. He gave evidence of his valour at 
Arguadec and Marignan. Pavia terminated his 
glorious career, 1525. The battle was given 
against his advice, and he fell pierced with 
wounds. After the battle of St. Aubin he had 
taken the device, which has been kept by his 
descendants, a wheel with the motto, " Sans point 
sortir de Phonneur.^^ to signify that no personal 
interest would cause him to swerve from the path 


of honour. Poor Mary Stuart again occurs, with 
a winged female (Fortune), holding a wheel and 
rudder, with the legend " Fortune will come." 
In British Heraldry the more frequent charge is 
the Catherine wheel, the instrument of the mar- 
tyrdom of the saint, represented as in the arms 
of Belvoir, which are technically, azure, a 
Catherine wheel or. This wheel has often 
been adopted in armorial insignia. It figures 
in the arms of the Turners' Company, 
incorporated 1604, ^^^ also in those of St. 
Catherine's Hall, Cambridge, founded in 1475. 
The Austin Priory at Flixton employed 
this wheel with a Cross Calvary projecting 
from it. Mertens, Lord Mayor of London, 
incorporated it in his heraldic elements, and the 
families of Wheeler^ Bayle, and Lepton^ amongst 
others, display it. Other wheels are found 
named, e.g., the Cart-wheel, usually of eight 
spokes. In one case the Water-wheel is named, 
and the Mill-wheel also occurs. The house 
of Martejoye bears, on a red field, a golden wheel 
of eight spokes, and that of Carrington, on a 
similar field, a fesse between three cart-wheels of 
gold. The Wheelwrights' Company bear three 
wheels. In the arms of John Wheeler, 1543, 
are figured, with other things, a chief bearing a 
wheel between two bezants. De Moline, Am- 
bassador from the Doge of Venice in the time 
of King James, bore, amongst other things, a 
wheel of a water-mill. 


Portions of the mill machinery are represented 
on coats of arms. We find, first of all the 
mill-stone, and this is generally borne with the 
mill-rindy or fer de moline upon it. In the 
achievement of Milveton^ are seen, on an aziire 
field, three silver mill-stones, on each a mill-rind 
sable. Next the mill-wheels are sometimes 
found, as also the cogs of the same, and mill- 
clack. A mill-wheel figures in the arms of 
Calrow and Chawcers bear three. Three cogs of 
a mill-wheel are exhibited by Coggs, and Mills 
of London, descended from Mills of Cornwall, 
bear a mill-clack, on a fesse. But this is getting 
away from the specific, although not from the 
generic wheel. 

Two forms of the harrow occur in armoury, 
the first square, the other triangular. The 
former might be mistaken for the portcullis, and, 
in fact, the French term herse is applied to both. 
It will be observed that, like other charges, the 
harrow is mainly adopted on account of the 
name. Thus, Harrow, or Harwe, displays three 
triangular harrows gules, and three harrows 
figure in the name of Harvy. Three triangular 
harrows again occur in the shield of Red- 
may ne. William, Duke of Hainault (ob. 141 7), 
son of Albert of Bavaria, father of the celebrated 
Jacqueline, bore for device a harrow on his 
standard, which was displayed in the Christian 
army against the Saracens in Africa, before the 
town of Mara, with the motto, " It crushes and 


levels," meaning that a prince may, by his wise 
laws and good government, subvert bad prin- 
ciples and crush those who resist his authority. 
Jean de Morvilliers (ob. iSTj), who succeeded 
Michel de I'Hopital as Chancellor of France, 
bore for his device a harrow tied to the Pytha- 
gorean Y, a rebus of his name — " Death and life 
united." The harrow is the symbol of death, 
which makes all things equal, as the harrow 
breaks up and equalises the clods of the field. In 
Rome, at the funerals of princes, cardinals, and 
other great personages, a harrow always figured 
in the ceremony, inscribed with the motto, 
" Death levels all things." It was seen at the 
funeral of Queen Henrietta Maria, and others. 
The motto of Morvilliers was, " This is the road 
to virtue." 

The form of the plough varies in different 
examples. In one coat, an antique plough is 
named. The Plough paddle is carried by the 
sinister supporter of the arms of Hay^ Earl of 
Kinmore, and the ploughshare, or Coulter is also 
represented. The family of Kragg display on 
an azure field a silver plough in fesse; Smetorty 
on a corresponding field, a fesse between three 
golden ploughs; Dreghorn exhibits an antique 
plough; Leversedge has amongst other detail 
.three ploughshares; Stevenson and Koehler show 
a coulter of a plough, and three coulters of 
the same respectively. The rake is drawn in 
the usual form of that used by haymakers. Two 


rakes figure in the shield of Bromle, and three in 
that of Brambertj of course posed and tinctured 
differently. There is also the thatchers^ rake, often 
confused with the wool comb, and the thatch 
hook. Three thatchers' rakes are shewn in the 
insignia of Zakesley. The Scythe, or sickle, the 
ordinary reaping hook, is borne by few British 
families. The house of Sicklemore exhibits 
three, and it has also a place in the insignia of 
Duberly, Sassell, Hockmore, and Premere. 

Claude Fauchet, (1601), the zealous collector 
of the ancient chronicles of France, took for his 
device the rebus of his name, a sickle (fauchf), 
with the motto, " I have gathered the scattered 
and neglected." Astronomy, in an armorial, 
and not a scientific sense has had a great influence 
upon heraldic design. The sun, of course, is 
the most important astronomical device — there 
is a telescope, but that is a modern and highly 
improper intrusion; the locomotive, motor-car, 
aeroplane, would be equally inappropriate. 

The astrolabe, the old astronomical instru- 
ment described by Ptolemy, used for taking 
altitudes, figures rarely. The family of Astrott, 
and Middleton, furnish examples. Sometimes 
figures and astronomical signs are used. Bernard 
displays three figures of seven, two, and one; a 
ring resembling the astronomical character of 
Mars occurs in the device of Stockenstorm, and 
two characters of the planet Venus are visible 
in the shield of Thoyt. The terrestrial sphere, 


or globe, is rare in arms, but not uncommon 
as part of a crest, e.g., of families of Hope, 
Drake, etc. It is often environed with a 
meridian, and sometimes placed in a frame or 
stand. A remarkable example of late heraldic 
invention and one of the worst is seen in the 
arms of Sir John Ross, C.B., Capt. R.N. 
Similar to the sphere, is the mound, or orb, but 
it is plain as a rule, and surmounted by a cross. 
A golden sphere figures in the arms of Harme, 
and on the shield of John Pierce, who was 
Bishop of Rochester, then of Salisbury, and 
finally Archbishop of York (1588-94), is dis- 
covered a globe with a pelican standing upon it. 
Three globes figure in the illustration of Eldred. 
Both the terrestrial and celestial spheres are 
named : the latter with a foot occurring in the 
Crest of the Company of Clock-makers. The 
crest of Bully Watch-maker to Queen Elizabeth, 
was thus composed : On a wreath argent and 
guleSy a cloud proper, thereon a celestial sphere 
azure, with the circles or; on the Zodiac the 
signs ArieSy Taurus, Gemini, and Cancer. A 
hemisphere or demi-globe occurs only as part of 
a crest. Planets are sometimes introduced 
under the astronomical signs which are used to 
denote them. The planet Venus occurs in the 
crest of Chambers, but has not been observed in 
any coat of arms. Blazoning tinctures by the 
name of Planets was invented by certain fanciful 
heralds in the seventeenth century. 


The conventional form of the Star is called 
an Estoile. In some late examples of stars, how- 
ever, the polar stars are represented. A comet 
is sometimes called a blazing star. Sir Francis 
Drake, the first English circumnavigator, bore 
sabhy a fesse wavy between the two pole-stars 
argent. In the arms of Somerset are seen the 
Arctic and Antarctic polar stars, as well as in 
those of Enderhy, granted in 1778. Bishop de 
Fontibus of Ely (1220-5) displayed on a field 
azure, the sun and full moon in chief, and the 
seven stars in orbicular form in base, all of gold, 
but this was a real piece of Heraldry. The 
Comet, or blazing star, is an estoile of six points 
with a tail extending fi-om it. Cartwright of 
Scotland furnishes a fine instance, blazoned 
azure, a comet in the dexter chief point with 
rays streaming in bend or. It makes a beautifial 
device. Coldwell, Prebendary of Ely, also had 
a comet in his insignia. It also distinguishes 
the family of Hurst on. 

The estoile is, as a rule, represented of six 
points wavy. Estoiles sometimes occur with a 
greater number of points, as eight or sixteen. 
Where the rays are represented straight, this 
has probably been by accident, as the figure 
would then, in all probability be described as 
a mullet of so many points; but there has no 
doubt been some confusion between the estoile 
and the mullet, the latter with English heralds 
being of five points, and with French heralds of 


six. Employment of estoiles dates far back 
into mediaeval mist. In the roll of Henry IIL 
we find that Gilbert Hansarde bore three of 
silver on a red field, and in that of Edward IIL, 
Monsire John de Cobham is indicated as dis- 
playing three estoiles of sable on a chevron of 
gold. The Heraldry of that period was magni- 
ficent in its simplicity and artistry. In the reign 
of Edward III. the Count of Oxford entered 
the field with a shield blazoned quarterly, 
or^ and gules, a silver estoile in each parti- 
tion. A chevron between three estoiles com- 
prises the achievement of Mordaunty Earl of 
Peterborough, 1628. Amongst other families 
using the estoile, are Stroud, Wiseman, Pierson, 
and Aldham. It is a very effective charge. A 
star within a crescent appears as the badge of 
Richard I., John, and Henry III., and was 
possibly intended to signify the ascendancy of 
Christianity over Mohammedanism, and so 
emblematic of the Crusades. The star em- 
ployed in this regal connection probably repre- 
sented the Star of Bethlehem. It was assumed 
by Richard in token of his victories over the 
Turks. Continuing the same device, King John 
caused it to be displayed on his pennies struck 
in Ireland. It also appears in the sculpture over 
the throne in St. Patrick's Cathedral, which was 
erected during his lordship of Ireland. 

John, in his twelfth year, was made Lord of 
Ireland and sent over to that country, where he 


continued during the reign of Richard I. He 
first added Dominus Hibernate to the royal 
titles. The City of Drogheda, whose corpora- 
tion received its charter from John, has for crest, 
on a wreath, a crescent and star argent, with the 
motto, " God is our safeguard and merchandise 
our glory." There must be a little inconsistency 
here. The star and crescent appears on the 
Great Seal of Henry III., of Winchester. He 
had the following motto painted on the wall of 
his chamber: — " He who has given not what 
he has taken not what he desires," which is a 
little vague, and somewhat inaccurate, if wc 
keep strictly to the letter. Henry III. had a 
robe of violet velvet, embroidered with his coat 
of arms — three golden leopards — both before 
and behind, and Eleanora, daughter of Edward I., 
wore furred gloves, having the arms of England 
wrought upon the thumb. Turning to the 
mullet, this bearing is generally taken to repre- 
sent the rowel of a spur. In old French blazon 
it is sometimes termed rowell. It might, how- 
ever, when not pierced, be taken to represent a 
star, and as may be seen by examples, it appears 
originally to have been interchangeable with the 
estoile. It usually has five points, and this num- 
ber is to be understood when no other is men- 
tioned. In French Heraldry the usual number 
of points is six. It figures very largely in 
English mediaeval Heraldry, as may be proven 
by reference to the Rolls of Henry III., Edward 


II., and Edward III. The arms of Vere, Earl 
of Oxford, give a simple instance, quarterly, 
gules and or, in the first quarter a mullet argent. 
Mullets having for the sake of variety more 
than five points, may be pierced of the field, or 
voided of some other tincture, and this is found 
to be the case with very early examples. Some- 
times, though pierced is not mentioned, it may 
be understood. In the reign of Edward II., 
Sir William de Harpedene, bore on a silver shield 
a red mullet pierced. The descendant family 
of Harp den (Gloucestershire), exhibit, on the 
same field, a mullet of six points pierced sabl©. 
Three pierced mullets figure in the arms of Mon- 
sirc de Bradbourne, who flourished m the reign 
of Edward III., and also in those of his con- 
temporary, John de Hotham, although diflfer- 
ently blazoned and arranged. Many other 
historic examples could be cited, but these will 
suffice. Edmondson has blazoned at times 
mullets as star-fishes, for which Guillim pretends 
that mullet was the ancient name. A mullet is 
used for a difference as a third house. 

As already pointed out in the ancient rolls the 
word rowel seems to be identified with that of 
mullet, and that again to be interchangeable with 
estoile. In taking the five rolls of arms which 
have been chiefly made use of in exhibiting the 
ancient examples, namely, the Roll of Henry III., 
in the Royal College of Arms; that preserved in 
a copy by Lcland and similar to one in the Har- 


Ician Collection; the roll of the siege of Caer 
laverock, and the rolls of Edward II. and III., 
the number of instances of the use of these three 
terms are as follows : Collectively, the mullet is 
so described ninety-four times, the estoile four, 
and the rowel fourteen. As the rolls represent 
the chief families, many names being repeated in 
two or three rolls, the unequal distribution points 
to the somewhat arbitrary use of the three terms, 
though as will be observed, the term mullet is 
not only the most frequently used, but is the 
only term common to all five rolls. The 
examples also show that the terms mullet and 
rowel seem to be used indiscriminately in respect 
of the same families. There does not seem to 
be sufficient evidence that the difference in the 
terms used is at all due to the fact of the charge 
being pierced or not, though the ancient rowel 
was always so represented. It would be tedious 
to the reader, and, moreover, space forbids, to 
recount all the historical instances of the use 
of the star under its varied forms of rowel, 
mullet, and estoile, so we will conclude by indi- 
cating a simple yet, and on that account, beautiful 
achievement of John de Saint John, which dis- 
plays on a silver shield a red chief, bearing two 
mullets of eleven points of gold, pierced green. 
But we have by no means done yet with our 
astronomical suggestions. 


Signs of the Zodiac — Musical Instruments. 

Returning to the zodiac, the Sagittarius, or cen- 
taur has some place in our excursion. It is com- 
posed of half a man and half a horse, the former 
holding an arrow upon a bended bow. It is one 
of the twelve zodiacal signs, and King Stephen 
is said to have assumed it because the sun was in 
that sign when he ascended the throne. His 
troublous career should be a warning to anyone 
disposed to adopt this figure as an ensign. The 
arms — fictions, of course — he may have used the 
device as such, but never as a coat — ascribed to 
King Stephen, are ^ules^ three sa^lttarii^ or. 
The family of Bloys is distinguished by the same 
monster, and it used to figure as a crest in the 
arms of the ancient London Academy of Music. 
What has become of it, by the way ? The moon 
is a common device in Heraldry. It is occasion- 
ally borne fiill, when it is termed, in her comple- 
ment, and it is then figured with a human face. It 
may also be illuminated, that is, surrounded with 
very short rays. Its proper tincture is ardent; 
when sable it is supposed to be eclipsed. When 
a half-moon is represented, with the horns 
towards the dexter side of the shield, it is de- 
scribed as a crescent — increscent; when the horns 


arc turned to the sinister as a crescent — decres- 
cent y and is sometimes blazoned as in her decre- 
ment. But these terms are chiefly found in 
theoretical works, and not often in practical 
blazon. When the horns are represented 
uppermost the charge is simply a crescent^ and 
this, as already mentioned, was from the earliest 
times the special ensign of the Turks. John 
de Fortibus, Bishop of Ely, 1220-25, already 
referred to, bore the sun, moon, and seven 
stars; his shield is technically described as azure, 
seven estoiles in orbicular forniy in chief the 
sun and full moon, or. The seven stars, as 
well as the moon, in this connection relate to Our 
Blessed Lady. The crescent, as such, finds treat- 
ment elsewhere. In the arms of Day (Co. Derby), 
a sun is seen between two moons. The achieve- 
ment of the Irish house of Martin is a very beau- 
tiful one; it presents on a field azure, a cross 
calvary, between a sun in splendour and a moon 
in her decrement proper. In this little instance 
the symbolism afi^ords plenty of opportunity for 
thought and meditation. To link the gibbet 
with the Sun and Moon, however, demands 
Faith, and not Science. The moon increscent 
and decrescent appears as a charge in the families 
of Balswilly Destures, and Gregorie, and in that 
of Delalune decrescent. Now we come to 
the largest luminary of all, namely, the Sun. 
The sun, of course, occupies in the armorial 
field a position akin to that of the lion and the 


eagle — each supreme in its respective way — and 
is utilised as the regal symbol, reflecting all 
the splendour and glory of majesty. Lower 
mortals, however, as in the other two cases, were 
frequently allowed to embrace it. The sun is 
usually borne in his glory or splendour, that is to 
say with a human countenance, and rays (sixteen 
or more), alternately straight and waved. Rays 
of the Sun are occasionally borne singly, and are so 
in the ancient rolls, but more frequently they are 
represented issuant from charges, when the term 
radiant, rayonne, or rayonnant is used. It is not 
improbable that some families have adopted it on 
account of the play on the name such as Thomp- 
son, Johnson, etc. In the arms of Richmond, 
a sun in his glory is figured, and in those of 
Delahay, the same orb in splendour. Amongst 
other insignia, the Lincolnshire house of Pearson 
also displays the sun in its splendour, whilst 
on an azure field, a sun in splendour of gold 
constitutes the civic insignia of the town of Ban- 
bury, where the cakes come from; Nicholson, an 
Irish family, exhibits three suns in glory, and on 
the shield of Hill, of Edinburgh, is visible the 
sun rising fi-om behind a hill. The feudal coat of 
the Lordship of Cardross exhibits an eagle dis- 
played looking at the sun in its splendour. A 
radiated sun appears in the arms of Gason, 
Kent {temp.. King Henry VIII.), seven suns 
in those of Elham, and a sun counterchanged 
in those of 5^ Clere of Devon. The sun or 


moon, when borne eclipsed, is drawn exactly 
as when in his glory, or in her complement, 
but sable. The shield of Welday exhibits a 
sun eclipsed in the dexter chief issuing beams, 
or, on a field argent, and that of Dysoriy the 
sun half eclipsed, that is per pale sable and or. 
The sun-flower appears only in one English coat 
of arms, and in this case the family is of a foreign 
extraction, namely, that of Florio, originally of 
Spain, granted 16 14, which displays, azure^ a 
sun-floweTy OTy issuing from the stalky sprouting 
out of his leaves vert; in chiefs the sun in splen- 
dour proper. 

Catherine de Medici, amongst several other 
schemes, bore the device of a comet crowned, 
with the legend, "Prudence is greater than Fate." 

Laslio Orsini bore the constellation of the 
Little Bear, with the motto, " As in Heaven," 
implying that as the Little Bear never hides itself 
in the ocean, so he on earth will never descend 
to any low action. The Polar star never sets. 
" None more watchful than he." Mary de 
Medici, also bore a star, with the adage, " Dear, 
though afar." Stars figure in the arms of 
Cardinal Mazarin {ob. 1 661); as a device he took 
from these three stars with the motto, " He left 
by valour, the boundaries of valour." Also he 
took a lictor's fasces, and the stars, with the 
legend, " Prudence is eminent in war." After 
the peace of the Pyrenees, he adopted the same 
stars, with the motto, " From these all 


serenity." Amongst the various insignia of 
Clement IX., who died of grief at the taking 
of Candia by the Turks, was the heavens 
studded with stars, with the maxim, " In speed 
that he may succeed." King Peter of Portugal, 
(ob. 1357) displayed the star of the Magi, 
with the significant motto, " It shows the 
ways." John, King of France, the prisoner of 
Poitiers, had two swans for his supporters, and 
took as his device a star crowned, with the motto, 
" Stars show the way to Kings," in allusion to the 
star that led the three Kings to Bethlehem. After 
the example of that of Edward III., who had 
instituted the Order of the Garter, John estab- 
lished that of the star. The knights wore no 
collar, but on their mantle was embroidered a 
blue star, charged with the initials of the King's 
motto. They also wore a ring with a star 
enamelled upon it. The great Captain, Andrea 
Doria, of whom mention has already been made, 
had a further device of a star with rays, sur- 
rounded by arrows, with the motto, " Show me 
Thy ways, O Lord." When he conducted 
Charles V. to Galeta, on the fourth galley, which 
was his, was displayed this insignia. 

Abroad, the globe figured largely. Philip II., 
husband of Mary of England, amongst other 
symbolic items, displayed the terrestrial globe, of 
which half is in darkness, with the legend, " The 
rest is given." Again, he took the device of 
the world, with the motto, " With Jove," from 


Virgil. Francesco Maria, Duke of Urbino, 
mention of whom has akeady been made, caused 
to be stamped upon his money the spheres with 
the earth in the middle, and the motto from Ovid, 
" Poised by his own weight," that is, he would 
govern himself and maintain himself by his own 
strength. In the following instance, the globe 
was made use of in a more practical manner. The 
" Great," or the " Fortunate " King Emanuel 
displayed a terrestrial globe, with the motto, 
" Thou hast first encompassed me." Emanuel 
was the great promoter of geographical discovery; 
under his reign, Vasco de Gama, first doubled the 
Cape of Good Hope (1497), and reached the 
Malabar Coast; Cabral sailed to Bengal (1500), 
and secured this great possession to Portugal; 
Almaz de Albuquerque and Correa, made con- 
quests and establishments in the East, and for 
this rapid increase of the prosperity and power 
of Portugal King Emanuel has justly deserved 
the epithet of the Great. In 1396, Martin I., 
King of Aragon, bore the figure of victory 
seated upon a globe with the motto, " Not in 
darkness." The device of Raffaelle Priario, 
Cardinal San Giorgio (ob. 1524), was the helm 
and the globe, with the motto, " This is my 
work," meaning that in order to execute 
his great designs, he should have been 
invested with the government of the world, 
should have been made pope. The device is 
placed in every part of his palace at Rome. He 


was great nephew of Sixtus IV., under whose 
directions he acted a prominent part in the con- 
spiracy of the Pazzi. He aspired to the papacy, 
but the election of Leo X. put an end to his 
ambitious hopes, and being implicated in the con- 
spiracy of Cardinal Alfonso Patrucci against that 
Pope he was degraded, but afterwards pardoned 
and retired to Naples till his death. His mag- 
nificent palace, built by Bramante, is one of the 
finest monuments of the renaissance of Rome. 

The Saint King of Castile, Ferdinand IIL, 
1230, also adopted a helm and a globe, with the 
motto, " Thou the pilot." Francis IL of 
France, already alluded to, amongst other insignia, 
had a dolphin with the terrestrial globe, encircled 
by the diamond ring of the Medicis and the 
crescent of Henry IL From the midst issue 
branches of the palm and olive, emblems of 
victory and peace, with the legend, " I will rule 
the world with my father's virtues," i.e.^ those I 
have inherited from him. Francis thus united 
the devices of his father and mother, signifying 
by the diamond the firmness and virtue with 
which he would rule the world. 

On the medals of Francis appear two globes, 
the one celestial and the other terrestrial, with 
the appropriate idea, " One world suffices not," a 
sentiment of piety, not of ambition. John II., 
sixth Duke of Bourbon, made use of the Sagitta- 
rius, as we learn from a M.S. in the Imperial 
Library at Paris. His arms are supported in 


one place by mermaids; in another by a Sagit- 
tarius. During the troubles in France Charles 
Emanuel, Duke of Savoy, 1636, seized the 
marquisate of Saluces, and caused money to be 
coined, upon which was the constellation of the 
Sagittarius, or centaur, having the crown at 
his feet, with the motto, " Observe the oppor- 
tunity," meaning that having found a crown, 
abandoned by the disorder of France, he had 
availed himself of the opportunity of possessing 
himself of it. As already mentioned, Stephen 
of Blois is said to have borne a Sagittarius as 
his badge, because he ascended the throne when 
the sun was in the sign of Sagittarius; or by 
others, because he gained a battle by the aid of 
archers. His arms are described as gules, three 
sagittarii. These are blazoned half men and half 
lions. The moon provides some notable foreign 
examples. Henry II., of France, had for sup- 
porters two angels, and subsequently two grey- 
hounds. When Dauphin, he adopted the special 
device by which he was distinguished — a crescent 
with the motto, " Until it fill the whole world," 
implying either that until he inherited the crown, 
he could not display his full glory, or else, that as 
the moon gradually increases until it fills the 
whole circumference, so he would not stop in his 
career until he filled the world with his renown. 
Henry bore the crescent variously disposed, 
sometimes three interlaced, sometimes one only 
placed upon his escutcheon. He ordered the 


cloth-of-silver mantle of the Knights of St. 
Michael to be embroidered with his device, of 
the three crescents interspersed with bows and 
quivers, and some with tongues and flames of fire. 
The arms of the family of Piccolomini of Siena 
are argent, a cross azure, charged with three silver 
crescents, from whence many of their devices were 
taken. Nicolo bore a crescent, with the words, 
"Without spot"; Ascanio, with the motto, "The 
full moon near at hand," in expectation of 
being raised to the pontificate. Enea Silvio Pic- 
colomini (Pope Pius IL), and his nephew Fran- 
cesco (subsequently Pius IIL), both adopted the 
crescent with the legend, " Formerly full." 
Claude de France (1524), first wife of Francis L, 
daughter of Louis XII. and Anne of Bretagne, 
was styled by her subjects, the " Good Queen." 
She took for her device a full moon, with the 
motto, " White to the white," or " Pure to the 
pure," meaning that as the moon, deriving its 
light from the sun, can add no brilliancy to that 
luminary, so she could add nothing to the fame 
and renown of her husband. 

Henry, the young Duke of Brunswick {ob. 
1568), bore the moon with the legend, " Light 
in Darkness " — the character of Faith. And 
Clemente Piccolomini paraded the herb Lunaria 
— moonwort, or honesty — and the moon, with 
the words, " Thou to me whatsoever." Before, 
however, abandoning our fertile astronomical- 
heraldic suggestions, two instances of the 


eclipse of the moon might be cited. Again, 
poor Mary Stuart! Amongst her catalogue of 
pathetic devices, occurred eclipses of the sun and 
moon, with the poignant motto, " She takcth 
from herself the light she envies," glancing, as 
may appear, at Queen Elizabeth, figured as the 
eclipsing moon. Scarcely less applicable 
pathetically to her own sad case is Brennus's 
balance, a sword cast in the scale to weigh gold, 
the motto, " What remaineth for the vanquished 
but misery." The famous Cardinal Ippolito de 
Medici (ob. 1535), nephew of Leo X., who was 
styled " The Magnificent," had several badges, 
one of which was the eclipse of the moon, with 
the legend, " Hence I shall at some time struggle 
out," — as one who hoped to extricate himself 
from unfavourable affairs — " mine is only a tem- 
porary eclipse." The Cardinal was the patron, 
companion, and rival of all the poets, the 
musicians, and wits of his time. Without terri- 
tories and without subjects, he maintained at 
Bologna a court far more splendid than that of 
any Italian potentate. 

Music now suggests itself. At first, one 
would hardly think there was any association 
between Heraldry and Music, but there is a con- 
siderable one. 

The Music J or Song-book, borne by the Parish 
Clerks of London, is of oblong form. Musical 
lines also occur, consisting of five parallel lines 
of music extending across the shield horizontally. 


The Company of Parish Clerks was incorporated 
A.D. 1233, and its arms were granted in 1582. 
These consist of, azure, a fleur-de-lis, or, on a 
chief gules, a leopard^s head between two song- 
books of the second, stringed vert, in 1760 a 
curious shield was bestowed upon Tetlow of 
Lancaster — azure, on a fesse argent, five musical 
lines sable charged with a rose gules, and two 
escallops of the third in chief. In the arms of 
the London Academy of Music, an open music- 
book was exhibited. 

Mention of the harp has already been made. 

We also discover the Jew's-harp, but it is 
doubtful if it is not meant, as the name of the 
bearer implies, for a scoop — argent, a Jew^s harp, 
or scoop in bend sable between six laurel leaves 
of the last, is borne by Scopham, Co. Lincoln. 

The fiddle, or violin, is found named in a few 
coats of arms. It should be drawn with the 
handle downwards. Three treble violins figure 
in the achievement of Sweeting, and the same 
number in those of Suttie and Sueting. 

The organ-pipe, with the fife and flute, make 
a little show. In the arms of Piper, three pipes 
occur, and in those of Pipe, two fifes, or sack- 
buts. Elliott displays, amongst other things, a 
shepherd's flute, several families of the name 
displaying flutes and pipes together. The 
organ-pipes are visible in the escutcheon of Lord 
Williams of Thame; also in those of Delafife, 
Co. Derby, and Neville. 


The trumpet is found not infrequently in the 
older Rolls of Arms, and has several shapes. 
Sometimes it is drawn flexedy taking the shape 
of the letter " S." The trumpet in the insignia 
of the Benedictine Abbey of Athelney is shaped 
like a cow's horn. In the reign of Edward II., 
Monsieur de Trompintone bore two golden 
trumpets. In the ancient brass of Roger Trump- 
ington, ob. 1289, in Trumpington Church, 
Cambridgeshire, are seen, azure^ two trumpets 
in pale between twelve cross crossletSy or. 
This instrument is indicated in the arms of the 
fiimilies of Neyville^ or Neville ^ Thunder, Hod- 
dingy and Wadnefont. With the trumpet may be 
classed the haut-boy. In the arms of Bourden, 
three are seen, and in those of Nevilly two. 
Then there is the bugle-horn, or hanchet. This 
may be garnished with encircling rings. It is 
usually stringed — that is, suspended by strings. 
It is borne as an artistic charge in the achieve- 
ments of several houses, such as Varnecky Baron 
Huntingfield, who has three; Dounes, Burnety 
HauUy and Hunter. The hunting-horn is often 
represented as the bugle-horn. It figures in the 
arms of Kineland, and Nevill. Both horns are 
eloquent of the fray and the chase. The cornet 
is named in some works, but it must be intended 
for a coronet. In Heraldry, in fact, all the Arts 
and Sciences are memorialised and perpetuated, 
not as mere practical figures, but as characters 
invested with history, poetry, and symbolism. 




The Influence or Heraldry upon Art and Archi- 
tecture, Archeology and Genealogy. 

The ancient system of Armorial Bearings pos- 
sessed a distinct^ dual character. It embodied 
not only a Science, but an Art, and the record 
of its two-fold aspect provides one of exceeding 
interest and beauty. 

The exaltation of the system to a Science was 
coincident with the dawn of the greatest era of 
Mediaeval Art, and simultaneously the process 
and practice of representing Armorial devices 
pictorially attained to the height of a splendid 
Art — the Art of Blazonry. 

Heraldic limning, always essentially decora- 
tive, was as peculiar and as appropriate to the 
Science which it co-ordinated as it was profoundly 
artistic. It comprised a happy combination of 
natural and artificial figures, illustrated in a 
distinctly conventional style, and was intensely 
eloquent and descriptive of the truly Armorial 
spirit and feeling then alive. 

Of this very noble art, many fine and original 
examples remain; in glass, brass, tiles, illumina- 
tions, monuments, and architecture, where they 
occur as beautiful and fitting accessories and 


ornaments and are to be found in great variety. 

But rich and beautiful as many of these 
instances unquestionably are, it was in the design- 
ing of Seals that the Art of Armorial Blazonry 
reached the zenith of its extraordinary perfection. 
As a consequence of its application to their manu- 
facture, it produced some of the most consum- 
mate works of mediaeval times. A large number 
of examples, revealing great beauty in concep- 
tion and remarkable richness f composition, 
chiselled in excellent spirit and delicacy, are dis- 
coverable amongst the seals of an armorial 
character which remain to us. The style and 
splendour of the art as exemplified by them is 
unequalled. Their designers were masters of 
blazonry, and their creations arc well appraised 
as its most beautiful examples. 

The designs of many of these seals exhibit 

several accessories in their composition which 

are at once appropriate, beautiful, and striking. 

Chief amongst them are the various features of 

""Gothic architecture. 

When the manifestation of the Gothic spirit 
in architectural forms of superlative beauty com- 
menced, all branches of contemporary Art natur- 
ally fell under its influence. And from the 
earliest years of its establishment as a definite 
Science and Art, an intimate association 
was instituted between Heraldry and archi- 
tecture, an association which was perfect 
since the spirit of the one was in complete accord 


with that of the other. Into the composition 
of Armorial Seals, delicate Gothic traceries were 
freely introduced, and blazons were frequently 
set in, or elaborated by, cusped windows, arches, 
spandrils, and panels; cinquefoils, quatrefoils, 
diamonds, squares, and other patterns. Thus, 
the Art of Blazonry came to be, though incident- 
ally, singularly illustrative of the forms of 
Gothic architecture. 

Since seals constituted the only means of 
authenticating documents, being attached to 
those of trivial, as well as of large importance, 
and employed by every individual and corpora- 
tion of standing and substance, of all contem- 
porary Arts that which involved their manufac- 
ture was perhaps the most fertile, and in its 
ramifications the most far-reaching. And apart 
from the Armorial aspect, of all the numerous 
and varied forms in which mediaeval art in 
general found expression, none exceed seal 
engraving in richness or beauty. 

Compared with all the others, save architec- 
ture, it projected prominently as the most chaste, 
the most finished, and the most perfect. 

Armorial seals, indeed, combine a rich and 
spirited delineation of the Art of mediaeval 
blazonry which is absolutely unique with a 
beautiful illustration of the components of 
Gothic architecture and Gothic ornament — a 
pageant of one of the finest arts of mediaeval 


We have said the richness and beauty of 
mediaeval seal engraving were surpassed by no 
other medium through which Art of that epoch 
found expression. Likewise, no other expres- 
sion of Art contemporary exceeded it cither in 
attractiveness or interest, and none possesses a 
title to higher appreciation. And of the various 
remains around which History and Archaeology 
foregather, not a single class can be maintained 
worthy of closer study than the heritage of 
originals and impressions which it has bequeathed 
to us. 

These equally interesting and important 
relics, which exist in large numbers and great 
variety, constitute perhaps the most extensive, 
and amongst the most valuable, antiquarian 
remains which we possess, a circumstance due to 
the legal importance anciently attached to seals. 

The archaeological value of seals has long since 
been scientifically recognised. Through their 
designs they afford evidence of unquestionable 
importance regarding points and details which, 
but for them, would be obscure or ambiguous. 
They perpetuate and illustrate circumstances and 
conditions and sympathies long obsolete, and 
reflect innumerable features of life as it obtained 
in mediaeval times. They are fraught with facts 
of consequence, and record history with the un- 
swerving fidelity of the chisel, and it is upon 
these grounds that their claims to wider study 
rest. Further, their study opens up various 


other fields — the importance of which may be 
less, but the interest of which is undeniably 
great — and in the many captivating themes upon 
which they touch, lies the fecundity of their 
interest, and the width of their attractiveness. 

From the point of view of archaeology, the 
chief features of armorial seal design are 
naturally heraldic and genealogical, but whilst 
they suffer in this regard by comparison with 
seals of certain other kinds, they yet convey in 
no small degree facts of importance, constitute 
information of value, and shed a vivid light 
upon old-time terms and customs, and, more- 
over, bear reference to several subjects of varied 

As history and the genealogical, ecclesiastical, 
and topographical records of the Middle Ages 
show, certain families by alliance became con- 
nected with the Royal houses and with the 
peerage, baronage, and knightage of England. 
Other houses became similarly associated with 
the nobility by the elevation of particular of 
their members to specific dignities, whilst other 
families became attached to the episcopate and 
to abbeys through the election of certain of their 
ranks to bishoprics and abbacies. Likewise, 
others, by possession or office, became associated 
with certain territories and districts, and were 
thus linked, through foundation or donation, 
with various monastic establishments. 

In illustration of such association, a few 


examples will suffice. The family of Warrenne 
became connected with royalty through the mar- 
riage of Joan, grand-daughter of Edward IL, 
with John de Warrenne, Earl of Surrey, and that 
of Ufford, by the marriage of Sir Ralph de 
Ufford and Matilda of Lancaster, the widow 
of William de Burgh, Earl of Ulster, and 
mother of Elizabeth, the wife of Prince Lionel 
of Clarence. The houses of Courtenay and 
Beauchamp are respectively linked with the Earl- 
doms of Devon and Warwick, and the races of 
Spencer and Skirlaw are consecutively associated 
with the Episcopates of Norwich and Durham, 
through the elevation of Henry Spencer (a 
grandson of the unhappy favourite of Edward 
IL) to the first, and of Walter Skirlaw, A.D., 
1386, to the second. The family of Chaworth 
is historically connected with the monastery of 
Amesbury, and that of Mowbray with the 
Priory of Axholm, whilst those of Bryan and 
Pillesden are linked with the Boroughs of 
Tenterden and Dartmouth. All these associa- 
tions and connections, with countless others, are 
illustrated in armorial bearings. 

In order that they might address themselves 
readily and easily to people of mediaeval times, a 
large number of early armorial devices were 
selected primarily on account of their allusivencss 
in sound or form to, or by their association 
with, the names of persons, dignities, and places, 
and instances of this character, on account of 


their symbolism and meaning, possess an unusual 

The varied and important alliances and associa- 
tions of certain houses with royalty and nobility, 
and also with episcopacy, monasticism, and topo- 
graphy, to which we have referred, are remem- 
bered and perpetuated by armorial devices 
recorded on seals. 

Heraldic achievements, however, are not only 
discoverable upon seals of a purely armorial 
character. As already indicated, heraldic shields 
frequently constituted an important accessory in 
design generally. All classes of seal, Royal, 
Baronial, Episcopal, Monastic, Borough, etc., 
contribute achievements of this character. Men- 
tion has already been made of the influence of 
Heraldry upon architecture, stained glass, 
panels, sepulchral monuments, tiles, illumina- 
tions, etc., but each of these subjects would 
require a volume apiece. Here, we will just 
regard a few of these artistic topics. 

The Heraldry of the coinage, in addition to 
the shields of arms of successive Sovereigns, 
exemplifies the changes that have taken place in 
the form and adornment of the Crown, and it 
also is rich in various badges and devices, hav- 
ing an historical significance. In coins, the royal 
shield is sometimes quartered by a cross charged 
upon it, as in the silver penny of Edward VI. 
A mediaeval ship, having a sail covered with 
Heraldic blazonry, appears on the Noble- 


coin worthy of its name. A figure of the King 
in armour, not particularly well proportioned to 
the size of the vessel, his sword in one hand, and 
his shield of arms in the other, is also repre- 
sented in these fine examples of mediaeval 
numismatic art. A ship without any sail, but in 
its stead charged with the Royal shield, height- 
ened by a cross, forms the reverse of another 
excellent coin, the Angel^ the obverse bearing a 
figure of St. Michael, with his lance thrusting 
down the dragon. The angel of Edward IV. 
on either side of the cross has the initial E and 
the white rose of York. The inscription reads 
— in Latin, of course — " By Thy Cross save us, 
O Redeemer Christ!" A crowned Rose, with 
a Royal cypher, is another favourite device, as 
in the shilling of Henry VIII., with the legend, 
" I have placed God before me, as my helper." 
Such are a few examples of the early Heraldry 
of English coins. More recently, and particu- 
larly in our own coinage. Heraldry and art have 
declined together, so that feeble designs, but too 
commonly executed with lamentable inconsis- 
tency, are associated with heraldic inaccuracies 
which continue uncorrected to this day. — Wit- 
ness the tressure of Scotland always incorrectly 
blazoned on the Royal Shield, and poor Britannia 
sitting forlorn on the copper and bronze coinage, 
as if conscious of being constrained to display 
on her oval shield an obsolete blazonry, that 


places the reign of Edward VII., in the 
eighteenth century. 

The influence of Heraldry upon the art of 
seal engraving has already been dealt with at 
sufficient length. But here should be men- 
tioned a beautiful instance, a richly traceried 
seal bearing the arms of John, Lord Bardolf, of 
Wormegay, in Norfolk, about A.D. 1350. 
This seal is a splendid specimen. It displays 
the achievement of Bardolf, namely, azure ^ three 
cinquefoilSy or. 

Gothic monuments, and in common with 
them, their successors of the Renaissance 
abound in every variety of armorial blazonry. 
And fine examples of heraldic monuments 
are no less abundant than are the shields 
and other insignia that appear on particular 
memorials. The principles which directed the 
selection of shields to be introduced into the 
composition of early monuments are worthy 
of careful attention ; and the same remark 
is no less applicable in the case of architecture. 
We must be content to specify a very small 
group of heraldic monuments of especial inte- 
rest and value. In Westminster Abbey : the 
monuments of Queens Eleanor of Castile, 
Phillippa of Hainhault, Elizabeth Tudor, and 
Mary Stuart; the monuments of Edward III. 
and Henry VII., and those of Eleanor de 
Bohun, Duchess of Gloucester, the Countess of 
Lennox, the Countess of Derby, the two De 


Valences, Earls of Pembroke, Edmund, Earl of 
Lancaster, Lord Bourchier, and Sir Giles Daube- 
ney, K.G. In Canterbury Cathedral the monu- 
ments of the Black Prince, and of Henry IV. 
and Joanna of Navarre. In Salisbury Cathedral 
the monument of Earl William Longspe^. In 
St. Alban's Abbey the monuments of Humphrey, 
Duke of Gloucester, and of the Abbots Wheat- 
hampstate and Ramsay. Also other fine monu- 
ments in the churches of Aysyng in Norfolk, 
Ewelme and Northleigh in Oxfordshire; King's 
Langley, in Hertfordshire, and Cobham, in 
Kent; in Beverley Minster, and in the Beau- 
champ Chapel of Warwick. 

In the illuminations of the Middle Ages 
Heraldry has a place of honour; and in the 
revival of that early art, which is held in such 
high estimation at the present day. Heraldry 
ought to occupy a position of corresponding 
importance. This implies in the illuminators of 
to-day some knowledge of Heraldry, and at 
least some degree of familiarity with good early 

In the ornamentation of early encaustic or 
inlaid pavement tiles, shields of arms and various 
heraldic devices frequently occur, and in many 
examples the shields of arms are arranged with 
much skill and in excellent taste to form decora- 
tive compositions in combination with foliage 
and traceries. Numerous heraldic tiles of a very 
interesting character remain in the Cathedrals of 


Worcester, Gloucester, and Exeter, and in the 
churches of Great Malvern, King's Langley, the 
abbey church of St. Alban's, and many others. 
The devices upon these tiles are frequently 
reversed, evidently the result of the neglect to 
reverse the designs upon the original dies or 

Heraldic blazonry was highly esteemed in 
the Middle Ages as a becoming decoration of 
personal costume. The knights wore their 
coats-of-arms embroidered on tabards or sur- 
coats, and they carried and used their shields 
of arms, and their armorial insignia were dis- 
played upon their weapons and upon the various 
accessories of their personal equipment. The 
ladies adapted this usage in their own costume, 
and they also wore mantles and dresses of arms, 
and many of their personal ornaments were 
strictly heraldic. 



The Influence of Heraldry upon Poetry and 
Literature — Scott. 

Of the features which distinguish the poetry of 
Scott none, perhaps, surpass in cogency or beauty 
that which displays an heraldic view. Scott is 
almost pre-eminently the poet of the blazoned 
shield. The influence of Heraldry upon his 
verse is evident to the least observant — through- 
out, passages, some of exceeding brilliancy, occur 
with a frequence which renders this perception 
keenly susceptive. Of its significance none 
ever enjoyed an acuter perception, or of its occult 
grandeur a higher comprehension. His know- 
ledge of the theme, as his poems evidence, was 
indeed recondite; its entire resources, origin, mis- 
sion, tradition, and laws were at command. In 
recounting incidents and situations in which it is 
involved, whilst by its aid enhancing the grace 
and charm of his work, he has unfolded the 
" mystic sense " of the science, and set it to 
melody. Its unwieldy technicalities and per- 
plexing vocabulary exchange their harshness, — 
without deterioration of either or the tenor of 
the subject, but rather to its lucidity and consc- 


quent appreciation — for language and phrase- 
ology the most exquisite and happy. To aim at 
beautifying Heraldry is to attempt the vain, but 
to disclose its beauties which are somewhat 
obscured is far otherwise. This Scott achieved, 
and more : he has revealed to us the magnifi- 
cent union of minstrelsy and heraldry which 
affords such abundant possibilities. 

As we scan the poems we discover arms, or 
their elements — in distinctive instances linked to 
personal cognomens, thus manifesting their 
affinity ; casually, cognizances presented alone 
suggesting designations, and evincing their 
synonymity. In certain blazons, too, we find 
their two-fold sense {i.e., heraldic and figurative) 
explicitly articulated, but it is not merely in 
treating specific devices the poet's learning and 
perception of Heraldry are displayed — through- 
out his verse both are tacitly expressed. 

The period of the poems, and the nature of 
the events therein narrated, it may be urged, are 
amenable for those frequent and marked 
armorial passages to which we have alluded. This 
is correct in part only. To illustrate precisely 
the eras, situations, and incidents treated, the 
introduction of heraldry as a concomitant — a 
piece of historic detail — was, of course, indispen- 
sable; that in exercising it the poet did so artisti- 
cally was inevitable; but neither consideration is 
answerable wholly for that prominence bestowed 
in the poems upon Heraldry and that exaltation 


of the science which palpably they affect. There- 
in we discover the personality of the man — not 
the poet — and his less dominant characteristics are 
revealed to us in a manner which no other trait 
of his work imparts so vividly. To demonstrate 
this is not difficult. The spirit of Heraldry 
comprises, inter alia, the creation of brilliant 
races above the mediocre — the triumph of line- 
age — and a mechanism employed to perpetuate 
their conspicuous achievements. An immense 
pride of ancestry, allied with an over-ruling 
ambition aimed at the elevation of his race, con- 
stituted the ascendant trait in the character of 
Scott — the rude awakening from his dream 
forms a melancholy chapter in the history of 
letters. In a degree, Heraldry typified this 
peculiarity; moreover, it proffered a convenient 
vehicle for its expression; upon his verse, there- 
fore, its employment as an historical element 
being essential, it was bound to leave an impress 
which, regarded as a concomitant alone, it would 
not have effected so graphically. Hence Scott's 
frequent use of Heraldry is in no diminutive 
measure — and that obvious elevation of the 
science indicated entirely — based upon heredity 
and temperament (he being the descendant 
of a noble house and fanatically imbued with its 
pride), and that overwhelming desire to magnify 
his race which possessed him. Outside these 
considerations his knowledge and comprehension 
of the science were undoubtedly nurtured by his 


pronounced tastes, by that knowledge of history, 
poetry, and romance for which he was renowned, 
and, further, by his particular regard for relics of 
the past, of which Heraldry was neither the least 
beautiful nor the least glorious. Hailing the 
ruins of Crichtoun Castle, he exclaims : — 

" Oft have I traced within thy fort. 

Of mouldering shields the mystic sense, 
Scutcheons of honour or pretence. 

Quartered in old armorial sort. 
Remains of rude magnificence." 

An entire analysis of passages distinctly or 
remotely heraldic is not here feasible. We, there- 
fore, select the more striking to illustrate the 
armorial mien of the poems, and demonstrate the 
point we have essayed to establish. Amongst 
those of a national caste the fine description of 
the Scottish standard demands precedence. 

" Highest and end-most was descried, 
The royal banner floating wide; 
The staff . . . bent beneath the standard's 

Wherein the western wind unrolled 
With toil the huge and cumbrous fold. 
And gave to view the dazzling field. 
Where, in proud Scotland's royal shield, 

The ruddy lion ramped in gold," 

On Flodden's fatal field, however; 

" Where shivered was fair Scotland's spear, 
And broken was her shield," 

the "ruddy lion" hung its head, and in connec- 
tion with the delineation above the following 
is mournfully significant : 

" Afar the Royal Standard flies, 
And round it toils and bleeds and dies. 
Our Caledonian pride." 

The dedication to Erskine breathes the 
patriotic spirit. When the poet in reverie lay 
" stretched upon the floor," and fought again 
" each combat o*er," he saw that, 

" . . . . Onward still the Scottish Lion bore. 
And still the scattered Southron fled before." 

** From the donjon tower on high, the men of 
Carrick " could descry : 

" Saint Andrew's cross in blazonry 
Of silver waving wide." 

And the gorgeous collar of King James when he 
greeted Marmion, was, we are told, 

" Wrought with the badge of Scotland's crown 
The thistle brave of old renown." 


Whilst Marmion tarries at an inn, the host in 
relating his marvellous tale tells how — 

. . ." On the north, within the ring, 
Appeared the form of England's king; 
Who then a thousand leagues afar 
In Palestine waged holy war; 
Yet arms like England's did he wield, 
Alike the leopards in the shield." 

Allusions to the English ensign are numerous 
and, as the succeeding instances, telling. In 
Branksome Hall knights and squires, yeomen 
and mail-clad men are assembled. 

" Why watch these warriors armed by night ? 
They watch to hear the blood-hound baying; 
They watch to hear the war-horn braying; 
To see St. George's red cross streaming.". . . 

Whilst all the national armorial figures are 
vigorous and majestic, it is in treating personal 
blazonry that the poet is happiest. It would be 
difficult indeed to discover a passage more 
beautiful than that descriptive of the device 
borne by Scott of Thirlestane — to whom a 
charter was granted entitling him to bear a 
tressure of fleurs-de-lis, identical with that 
enclosing the " ruddy lion " of Scotland, with 
a bundle of spears for a crest — and the memor- 
able incident whence it issued. " From fair St. 


Mary's silver wave " to Branksome came this 
valiant warrior. 

" His ready lances Thirlestanc brave 
Array'd beneath a banner bright. 
The tressured fleur-de-lis he claims 
To wreathe his shield, since Royal James, 
Encamped by Fala's mossy wave, 
The proud distinction grateful gave. 

For faith 'mid feudal jars; 
What time, save Thirlestane alone, 
Of Scotland's stubborn barons none 

Would march to southern wars; 
And hence in fair remembrance worn 
Yon sheaf of spears his breast has borne : 
Hence his high mottoe shines revealed — 
* Ready, aye, ready,' for the field." 

The Kerrs of Cessford bore vert, on a chevron 
between three unicorns'* heads erased argent, 
three mullets sable, with a unicorn's head for 
crest; the Scots of Buccleuch, or, on a bend 
azure a star of six points between two crescents 
of the first. When the heir of the latter " pur- 
sued his infant play " 

"... The gray warriors prophesied, 
" How the brave boy, in future war, 
Should tame the unicorn's pride, 
Exalt the Crescent and the Star." 

The Cranstouns, in obvious relation, bore as 


a crest a crane dormant^ holding a stone in its 
foot. William of Deloraine, returning from his 
weird mission, meeting Lord Cranstoun, 

". . . Marked the crane on the Baron's crest " — 

unfortunately, however, it followed, for William 
of Deloraine. The famed cognizance of 
the illustrious house of Douglas is often and 
gracefully alluded to. From Branksome's 
towers " to Branksome's aid " was seen " the 
advancing march of martial powers " 

" The Bloody Heart blazed in the van. 
Announcing Douglas, dreaded name! " 

Of Ellen Douglas the minstrel sings : 

" Loveliest and best. 
Cause of every gallant's sigh. 
And leading star of every eye. 
And theme of every minstrel's art. 

The Lady of the Bleeding Heart." 

When Douglas, in his retreat, learns that the 
" tyrant of the Scottish throne . . . now hither 
comes he sorrowful, but undismayed," ex- 
claims : 

" Poor remnants of the Bleeding Heart ! 
Ellen and I will seek apart 
The Refuge of some forest cell," 


When Roderick Dhu loyally rejoins: 

"... Blasted be yon pine, 
My father's crest, and mine. 
If from its shade in danger part, 
The lineage of the Bleeding Heart." 

Concerning Archibald Douglas, King James 
to Marmion thus unjustly speaks : 

" A chief unlike his sires of old. 
He wears their motto on his blade. 
Their blazon o'er his towers displayed; 
Yet loves his sovereign to oppose. 
More than to face his country's foes." 

The home of the family, Tantallon Castle, 
now in ruins, is vividly described. We quote 
from the delineation : — 

" Above the rest, a turret square, 
Did o'er its Gothic entrance bear. 
Of sculpture rude, a stony shield; 
The Bloody Heart was in the field. 
And in the chief three mullets stood, 
The cognizance of Douglas' blood." 

To Branksome's aid, too, came that renowned 
freebooter, Scott of Harden, 


"... With many a moss-trooper, came on; 
" And azure in a golden field, 

The stars and crescents graced his shield. 
Without the bend of Murdleston." 

Sir Brian Tunstall, ycleped " the Undefiled," 
wore white armour, and sustained a shield of the 
same. Fighting on the English side he fell on 
Flodden. Whether the epithet was suggested 
by the colour of the armour, or originated from 
his loyal and knightly character, is unknown; but 
judging from the passages in relation to him, 
which are clearly figurative, we infer the latter 
incentive was entertained. 

" Amid the scene of tumult high 
They saw . . . 

Stainless Tunstall's banner white," 

". . . Fortune on the right. 

With fickle smile, cheer'd Scotland'i 

Then fell that spotless banner white." 

" Tunstall lies dead upon the field : 

His life's blood stains the spotless shield." 

Nothing could be more intensely poetic than 
the second line of the last quotation. The 
accomplished Sir Giles de Argentine, who waj 


contemporaneous with Bruce, bore a cross, gules. 

" Alone de Argentine, 
Yet bears on high his red-cross shield." 

He received his death-blow : 

" The squadrons round free passage gave, 
The wounded knight drew near : 
He raised his red-cross shield no more." 

To the question of Norman, heir of Arman- 
dane, Malise makes answer : 

" At Doune, o'er many a spear and glaive, 
Two barons proud their banners wave. 
I saw the Moray's silver star, 
And marked the sable pale of Mar." 

King James apostrophising the loyalty of the 
people of Stirling and their love for the Douglas 
was checked by the appearance of a harbinger, 
and exclaims : — 

" But soft, what messenger of speed 
Spurs hitherward his panting steed.? 
I guess his cognizance afar — 
What from our cousin, John of Mar.?'* 

To Rhoderick Dhu, in durance vile, comes 
the minstrel with tidings of the fight. He bids 


him tune and sing. Acquiesing, he chants : 

"... I see the dagger crest of Mar, 
I see the Moray's silver star, 
Wave o'er the cloud of Saxon war 
That up the lake comes winding far." 

The device of the Howards, as is well known, 
is a lion argent. At Branksome, 

" Each chief around leaned on his spear 
To see the pursuivant appear; 
All in Lord Howard's livery dressed. 
The lion argent decked his breast." 

At the proposition of Lord Howard, the fierce 
Dacre is wroth. 

"... * Yet hear,' quoth Howard, * calmly 
Nor deem my words the words of fear; 
For who in field or foray slack. 
Saw the blanche lion e'er fall back? " 

On Flodden was seen 

". . . Edmund Howard's lion bright," 

And with Tunstall's " spotless banner white 
The Howard's lion fell." 

The heraldic element in the relation it bears 


to Marmion in the poem of that name is not 
only full of charm and elegance, but particularly 
striking. His career — the splendour of his repu- 
tation, the cause of its decline, and his fitting 
end — is typified throughout by the course of the 
falcon crest to a degree that, from an armorial 
analysis alone, we can almost comprehend it. 
Distinct from its heraldic significance, from his- 
tory, or fiction, no finer illustration of knight- 
errantry, with its attendant conditions, or con- 
temporary picture than the delineation of Mar- 
mion and his career affords could be adduced. 
The fact that the leading figure of the poem is 
purely an imaginary one by no means reduces its 
heraldic value. At Norham Castle Marmion 
arrives : — 

" Well was he armed from head to heel, 
In mail and plate of Milan steel; 
But his strong helm of mighty cost. 
Was all with burnished gold emboss'd. 
Amid the plumage of the crest, 
A falcon hovered on her nest. 
With wings outspread, and forward breast; 
E'en such a falcon on his shield 
Soared sable in an azure field; 
The golden legend bore aright, 
* Who checks at me, to death is dight.' 
Blue was the charger's 'broidered rein. 
Blue ribbons decked his arching mane; 
The knightly housings' simple fold 
Was velvet blue, and trapp'd with gold.** 

Of Marmion's men-at-arms attendant, 

" The last and mightiest of the four 
On high his forked pennon bore 
Like swallow's tail, in shape and hue 
Fluttered the streamer glossy blue. 
Where, blazoned sable as before, 
The towering falcon seemed to soar." 


" Last, twenty yeomen, two and two. 
In hosen black and jerkin blue. 
With falcons 'broider'd on each breast. 
Attended on their lord's behest." 

Marmion is accorded a royal welcome. Twc 
pursuivants with herald pomp, and state, 

"... Hailed him Lord of Fontenayc, 
Of Luterward and Semelbaye, 

Of Tamworth tower and town; 
And he, their courtesy to requite. 
Gave them a chain of twelve marks weight. 

All as he lighted down. 
Now, largesse, largesse. Lord Marmion, 

Knight of the Crest of Gold! 
A blazoned shield in battle won 

Ne'er guarded heart so bold." 

Escorting him to the Castle hall, 


"... The heralds loudly cried, 
* Room, lordlings, room for Lord Marmion, 

With the crest and helm of gold; 
Full well we know the trophies won 

In the lists at Cottiswold. 
We saw the victor of the crest 

He wears with worthy pride. 
And on the gibbet-tree reversed, 

His foeman's 'scutcheon tied.' " 

The scene changes to Lindisfarne, where from 
" Whitby's cloistered pile " comes the Abbess 
to hold a chapter, " stern and strict," on two 

" One alone deserves our care. 
Her sex a page's dress belied . . . 

. . . On doublet breast. 
She tried to hide the badge of blue, 

Lord Marmion's falcon crest." 

In the weird tilt with De Wilton, whom 
Marmion had wronged, the latter is almost van- 
quished. To the surprised Fitz Eustace, 

" The moon-light did betray. 
The falcon-crest was soiled with clay." 

Amidst the disorder on Flodden, 

« High 

They saw Lord Marmion's falcon fly." 


And, when Scotland's seemed the victory, 

" Yet still Lord Marmion's falcon flew 
With wavering flight " 

But " the scattered van of England wheels," 

"... Straight up the hill they rode, 
Two horsemen drenched with gore, 
And in their arms, a helpless load, 

A wounded knight they bore. . . . 
With dented shield and helmet beat. 
The falcon crest and plumage gone. 
Can that be haughty Marmion .'' " 

His casque removed, he felt free air — 

" Around 'gan Marmion widely stare : 
* Where's Harry Blount ? Fitz Eustace 

where ? 
Linger ye here, ye hearts of hare! 
Redeem my pennon — charge again! 
Cry, " Marmion to the rescue ! " Vain ! 
Last of my race on battle plain 
That shout shall ne'er be heard again ! ' " 

Upon his tomb, 

** . . . All around, on 'scutcheon rich 
And tablet carved, and fretted niche, 
His arms and feats were blazed." 


De Wilton : 

** . . . Won his rank and lands again; 
And charged his old paternal shield, 
With bearings won on Flodden Field." 

The happy association of Heraldry and archi- 
tecture is occasionally denoted. Two instances 
have already been quoted. At Melrose, 

" The keystone that locked each ribbed aisle 
Was a fleur-de-lys or a quatrefoil." 

And the monument at Mortham was 

" Carv'd o'er in ancient Gothic wise 
With many a 'scutcheon and device." 

The delineation of the Champion of Brank- 
some's lady is purely metaphoric: 

" Here standeth William of Deloraine, 
Good knight and true, of noble strain, 
Who sayeth that foul treason's stain. 
Since he bore arms, ne'er soiled his coat." 

The succeeding, from " Marmion '* and the 
" Lord of the Isles " respectively is likewise 
entirely figurative : 

"... Honour, with his spotless shield. 
Rends Honour's 'scutcheon from thy 


The ensuing is adduced to evince the nobility 
Heraldry presumably confers. Of King James 
in disguise, it is said : 

" His stately mien as well implied 
A high-born heart, a martial pride, 
As if a baron's crest he bore." 

As befitting our generic subject, we conclude 
this view of Scott and his verse with that regal 
description of the entry of the Lion King of 
Arms contained in " Marmion " : 

" First came the trumpets, at whose clang 
So late the forest echoes rang : 
On prancing steeds they forward pressed, 
With scarlet mantle, azure vest; 
Each at his trump a banner wore. 
Which Scotland's royal 'scutcheon bore. 
Heralds and pursuivants, by name, 
Bute, Islay, Marchmont, Rothsay came, 

In painted tabards, proudly showing 

Gules, argent, or, and azure glowing. 
Attendant on a King of x\rms. 
Whose hand the armorial truncheon held. . 
On milk-white palfrey forth he paced; 
His cap of maintenance was graced 

With the proud heron-plume. 
From his steed's shoulder, loin and breast 

Silk housings swept the ground, 
With Scotland's arms, device, and crest 


Embroidered round and round. 
The double-tressure might you see 

First by Achaius borne, 
The thistle and the fleur-de-lis 

And gallant unicorn. 
So bright the King's armorial coat, 
That scarce the dazzled eye could note 
In flying colours, blazoned brave, 
The Lion which his title gave." 

Should the incentives upon which we rest the 
responsibility for that influence we have essayed 
to depict fail to win cur unqualified sympathy, 
the force and grandeur of its effect challenges 
our entire admiration and establishes the convic- 
tion that Heraldry, not weighed merely as a his- 
torical detail, but as an element of poetry, sheds 
upon it a lustre peculiarly its own. 


How TO Reform Heraldry 

In an age which boasts many anomalies, there 
are few more singular, or more provocative of 
wonderment, than that ambiguous institution 
known as " Modern Heraldry." li we pause 
to deliberate upon the varied aspects of the Art- 
Science in its true sense, arrayed on the one 
hand with its peculiar origin and embassy, the 
rigour of its constitutions, its glorious traditions, 
and the beauty and grandeur which enwreathed it 
for centuries, and, on the other hand, the con- 
temporaneous uses to which it is put, the laxity 
of its government, and that universal wanton- 
ness and free love, so to speak, in which it is 
regarded and dealt with, the comparison incites 
a keen perception of the grotesque. Nor is the 
sensibility thus limited. We experience the 
same revulsion of feeling which a giddy masque 
in the hallowed aisles of a Gothic cathedral would 
engender within us, and the ultimate effect of 
our musings is a sense of mingled regret and 
derision towards the last state of that institution. 
The Heraldry of to-day exhibits a high van- 
dalism and prostitution, and also a parody of 


equal dimensions. It attests the diversion of 
a noble stream which once meandered through 
romantic scenery — ^rugged, perhaps; grand, 
assuredly — through the glazed earthenware pipe 
of twentieth century ** civilisation." In the age 
which gave it rise, and those succeeding which 
saw its unpolluted flow, none but the valiant, 
the noble, the chivalrous, and the true — those 
who distinguished themselves by valour on the 
field and virtue at the court — dared to assume 
the symbols which were the rewards of those 
attributes, unless their claim to them was beyond 
cavil, and they were empowered to do so. 
To-day, anyone without the slenderest personal 
merit is allowed, on payment of a fee, to obtain 
a grant of arms and so become, according to a 
modern heraldic writer, a true gentleman. But 
for the restraint it exercises over the assumption 
of arms, the introduction of the monetary 
element itself would be infinitely droll, yet this 
is ineffectual to check the employment of bastard 
coats, as practically anyone can give fancy rein 
and assume what he likes. 

If it is to be esteemed something more exalted 
than a farce, the present condition of Heraldry 
demands attention. To preserve its ancient 
dignity two courses are open, namely: (i) Its 
entire abandonment owing to its lack of harmony 
with modern conditions; or (2) to place it on 
an absolutely fresh basis, subject to arbitrary 
distinctions and put to uses equally as lofty and 


praiseworthy as those which originally obtained. 
The spirit of Heraldry, from an archaeological 
and artistic standpoint, is always fresh, but the 
utility of the Art-Science is for ever at an end; 
in other words, its practical uses, save in so far 
as it serves to distinguish families and public 
bodies, are no longer of avail. Notwithstanding 
this, and giving full recognition to the truth that 
its ancient exercise is dead and incapable of 
resuscitation, the forces embodied in the Spirit 
of Heraldry suggest and still find expression, 
and I am convinced that it may be honourably 
accommodated to modern conditions and its 
services well and profitably retained. 

Admitting, without further demonstration, 
their feasibility, the questions now arise — (i.) 
How are we to effect the rehabilitation of 
Heraldry, and (ii.) by what means do we propose 
to adapt it to existing circumstances ? 

If the restoration of the Art-Science to a 
position of honour is to be effected, it is expe- 
dient, in the first place, that the existing body 
of arms should be purged, and in the next, so 
as to render them more estimable, that a limita- 
tion should be placed upon further augmenta- 
tions thereof. The latter proposition, in eluci- 
dating, might be dealt with later. To give 
effect to the former, a Commission of Heralds 
would have to be appointed to examine every 
coat of arms now in use, and to scrutinise its 
legitimacy. To reduce the difficulties that 


would of necessity arise, all Armorial Bearings 
ratified at previous Visitations would be ad- 
mitted. Those of posterior assumption which 
are discovered to have been duly matriculated 
would be confirmed and held as arms of the first 
class. Such as have been appropriated without 
license to be thus treated. Where the bearer can 
establish a prescriptive right of two hundred 
years to sustain an unrecorded coat, the same 
to be recognised, all such achievements, however, 
being considered subordinate to the first, and to 
be styled arms of the second class. Where no 
such usage can be substantiated, the arms in each 
case to be rejected as spurious and their continued 
employment, as well as the further assumption 
of unadmitted arms, constituted a civil trespass, 
punishable by fine. As regards corporate 
Heraldry, a similar investigation to be instituted, 
and where armorial devices have been adopted 
without authority, the same regulations to be 
applicable. These means, if effected, would do 
much to classify existing armoury. 

Having purged the armoury, what measures 
are to be taken to accomplish an adjustment of 
Heraldry to prevailing conditions, and to restrain 
the further expansion of the purified body.'' I 
advance several suggestions. 

In the first place, the Heralds' College should 
be made a public institution. By this we mean 
an institution worked for the public benefit, and 
not for that of a small clique of officials. To 


insure the working of this arrangement, the fees 
should be paid to the Treasury, as is the case 
with those of the Lyon, and Ulster offices, and 
should be on a reasonable scale, and access should 
be given to the public to the records under 
similar regulations to those in force in the 
Department of M.S. in the British Museum, 
or the Record Office. A calendar of the names 
of families to whom arms are recorded should 
be prepared and printed as a Government 
publication. The officials should receive 
adequate salaries and be entirely independent 
of the fees paid. 

The present system of capturing wealthy 
individuals and fleecing them as much as pos- 
sible in the way of fees would give place to a 
much more useful one of increasing information 
and in spreading an interest in the historic and 
archaeological side of Heraldry and Genealogy. 

Having set the Heraldic house in order, we 
come to the all-important question of new-made 
grants. These should surely be only to persons 
who have had some distinctive title, order, or 
office conferred upon them, or armorials be made 
themselves a distinction for services rendered to 
the State or the public, and not be at the option 
of anyone who cares to pay the present high fees. 

Walter Watts & Co., Ltd., Printers, Leicester. 






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